Title Page

  • Department

  • Date and Time of Inspection

  • IT Personnel


  • Human Error

  • • Accidental destruction, modification, disclosure, or incorrect classification of information

  • • Ignorance: inadequate security awareness, lack of security guidelines, lack of proper documentation, lack of knowledge

  • • Workload: Too many or too few system administrators, highly pressured users

  • • Users may inadvertently give information on security weaknesses to attackers

  • • Incorrect system configuration

  • • Security policy not adequate

  • • Security policy not enforced

  • • Security analysis may have omitted something important or be wrong

  • Dishonesty: Fraud, theft, embezzlement, selling of confidential agency information

  • Attacks by “social engineering”

  • • Attackers may use telephone to impersonate employees to persuade users/administrators to give user name/passwords/modem numbers, etc.

  • • Attacks by “social engineering”: Attackers may persuade users to execute Trojan Horse programs

  • Abuse of privileges/trust


  • Unauthorized use of “open” computers/Laptops’

  • Mixing of test and production data or environments

  • Introduction of unauthorized software or hardware

  • Time bombs: Software programmed to damage a system on a certain date

  • Operating system design errors: Certain systems were not designed to be highly secure

  • Protocol design errors: Certain protocols were not designed to be highly secure. Protocol weaknesses in TCP/IP can result in:

  • • Source routing, DNS spoofing, TCP sequence guessing, unauthorized access

  • • Hijacked sessions and authentication session/transaction replay, data is changed or copied during transmission

  • • Denial of service, due to ICMP bombing, TCP-SYN flooding, large PING packets, etc.

  • Logic bomb: Software programmed to damage a system under certain conditions

  • Viruses in programs, documents, e-mail attachments


  • Attack programs masquerading as normal programs (Trojan horses)

  • Attack hardware masquerading as normal commercial hardware

  • External attackers masquerading as valid users or customers

  • Internal attackers masquerading as valid users or customers

  • Attackers masquerading as helpdesk/support personnel


  • Eavesdropping

  • Electromagnetic eavesdropping / Ban Eck radiation

  • Telephone/fax eavesdropping (via “clip-on” telephone bugs, inductive sensors, or hacking the public telephone exchanges

  • Network eavesdropping. Unauthorized monitoring of sensitive data crossing the internal network, unknown to the data owner

  • Subversion of ONS to redirect email or other traffic

  • Subversion of routing protocols to redirect email or other traffic

  • Radio signal eavesdropping

  • Rubbish eavesdropping (analyzing waste for confidential documents, etc.)


  • Malicious, deliberate damage of information or information processing functions from external sources

  • Malicious, deliberate damage of information or information processing functions from internal sources

  • Deliberate modification of information


  • Password cracking (access to password files, use of bad – blank, default, rarely changed – passwords)

  • External access to password files, and sniffing of the networks

  • Attack programs allowing external access to systems (back doors visible to external networks)

  • Attack programs allowing internal access to systems (back doors visible to internal networks)

  • Unsecured maintenance modes, developer backdoors

  • Modems easily connected, allowing uncontrollable extension of the internal network

  • Bugs in network soft are which can open unknown/unexpected security holes (holes can be exploited from external networks to gain access. This threat grows as software becomes increasingly complex)

  • Unauthorized physical access to system


  • Receivers of confidential information may refuse to acknowledge receipt

  • Senders of confidential information may refuse to acknowledge source


  • Failure to comply with regulatory or legal requirements (ie, to protect confidentiality of employee data)

  • Liability for acts of internal users or attackers who abuse the system to perpetrate unlawful acts (ie, incitement to racism, gambling, money laundering, distribution of pornographic or violent material)

  • Liability for damages if an internal user attacks other sites.


  • Major natural disasters, fire, smoke, water, earthquake, storms/hurricanes/tornadoes, power outages, etc

  • Minor natural disasters, of short duration, or causing little damage

  • Major human-caused disasters: war, terrorist incidents, bombs, civil disturbance, dangerous chemicals, radiological accidents, etc

  • Equipment failure from defective hardware, cabling, or communications system

  • Equipment failure from airborne dust, electromagnetic interference, or static electricity

  • Denial of Service:

  • • Network abuse: Misuse of routing protocols to confuse and mislead systems

  • • Server overloading (processes, swap space, memory, “tmp” directories, overloading services)

  • • Email bombing

  • • Downloading or receipt of malicious Applets, Active X controls, macros, PostScript files, etc

  • Sabotage: Malicious, deliberate damage of information or information processing functions

  • • Physical destruction of network interface devices, cables

  • • Physical destruction of computing devices or media

  • • Destruction of electronic devices and media by electromagnetic radiation weapons (HERF Gun, EMP/T Gun)

  • • Deliberate electrical overloads or shutting off electrical power

  • • Viruses and/or worms. Deletion of critical systems files


  • Recommendations

  • IT Personnel (Full Name and Signature)

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