Audit

Charter 1. General Information

1.1 Name of the vessel
Note: Prefixes (MT, MV, SS etc). Must not to be used unless they are actually a part of the
Registered name of the vessel. The name must be entered exactly as it appears on the
Certificate of registry.

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1.2 Vessel IMO Number

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1.3 Company IMO Number

Note: The Document of Compliance (DoC), Includes Guidance note referring to company. Number, Company and registered owner identification number and is required on the following certificates from 1st january 2009:

. Safety Management Certificate
. Document of Compliance
. International Ship security Certificate
. Continuous Synopsis Record
this requirement is for certificates issued after 1st january 2009 and existing certificates need not be amended until their renewal dates. Some flag states require all the existing certificates listed above to have been amended by 1stjanuary 2009 to show the company and owner identification numbers.

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1.4 Date of Inspection was completed:

Note: If the inspection extends to two or more days, record the circumstances in the charter end additional comments:

1.5 Port Of Inspection

1.6 Flag:

If a change of flag has taken place within the past 6 month, record the date of change and the previous flag in comments

1.7 Deadweight: (metric tonnes)

Note: for vessels with multiple load line certificates, record the maximum of the assigned deadweights.

1.8 Gross Tonnage:

1.9 Date the vessel was delivered

Note: the date of delivery from the original builders as listed in the IOPPC must be recorded. if the date of delivery is not recorded in the IOPPC form A or Form B, the date of delivery as contained in the Safety Construction Certificate must be recorded. if the vessel has been re-aged the original build date must be recorded

1.10 name of OCIMF inspecting company:

Note: The SIRE Report Editor software automatically inserts the name of the inspecting company.

1.11 Time the inspector boarded the vessel:

1.12 Time the inspector departed the vessel:

If the inspection took place over two or more days, in two or more sessions, or was carried out by more than one inspector, record the arrival and departure details in comments.

1.13 Name of the inspector:

Note: The VIQ software automatically inserts the name of the inspector. This is for use by the inspecting Company and for OCIMF internal purposes only and will not displayed on the delivered report.

1.14 Vessel Operation at the time of the inspection

1.15 Products being handled

1.16 Is an up date OCIMF Harmonized Vessel Particulars Questionnaire (HVPQ) maintained and is it readily available?

Notes: Participation in the Programme by vessel Operators includes a mandatory requirement to submit to SIRE, HVPQss for each controlled vessel. the HVPQ was revised in 2009 to include the officer Matrix previously included as part of Q 3.10 in this VIQ. to better assist the inspector, inspectors must access the SIRE database and download the HVPQ for each vessel that is to be inspected prior to attending the vessel. inspectors MUST either print out or download the officer matrix for use during the inspection to assist the response to Q 3.10.
The HVPQ complied using OCIMF HVPQ software should be available on board and randomly reviewed by the inspector for accuracy. it is not essential that the HVPQ is provided in paper form and inspectors are not expected to seek a paper copy from the vessel.
Operators should contact OCIMF at sire@ocimf.com to participate in the OCIMF SIRE PProgramme as an HVPQ submitting operator
the HVPQ 4 edition currently in use is version 4.1.4.77.

1.17 Vessel Type:

1.18 Hull Type:


Note: Refer to the IOPPC Form B/5 to determine the construction requirement.

1.19 Name of the vessels operator

Note: for the purpose of the sire programme, an operator is defined as the company or entity which exercises day to day operational control of, and responsibility for, a vessel. The name of this entity can be found in the vessel's Document of Compliance.
The registered owner of a vessel may or may not be the operator.

1.20 Address of the vessels operator

Note: If the report is to be forwarded to an alternative address, record the details.

1.21 Telephone number of the operator:

1.22 E-mail address of the operator:

1.23 DDate the current operator assumed responsibility for the vessel:

1.24 Date of the last port state control Inspection:

Note: The Date refers to anny port state inspection

1.25 Port of Last port state control inspection:

if the vessel was detained,, or if significant deficiencies were listed, record the reason for the detention or the nature of those deficiencies in comments,
Note: IMO has encouraged the establishment of regional port state control organizations and agreements on the port state control - Memoranda of understanding or MOUs -have been signed covering all of the world's oceans: Europe and the north atlantic (Paris MOU)
Asia and pacific (Tokyo MOU); Latin America (Acuerdo de Vina del Mar); Caribbean (Caribbean MOU); West and Central Africa (Abuja MOU); the Black Sea region (Black Sea MOU); the Mediterranean (Mediterranean MOU); the indian Ocean (Indian Ocean MOU); and the Arab States of the Gulf (GCC MOU(Riyadh MoU))). With affect from 1st January 2011 The Paris MOU will change to a new inspection Regime (NIR) and ships will be subject to inspection on the basis of ship risk profile in conjunction with the Company Performance. Ships will be categorized as either Low Risk Ships (LRS); Standard Risk Ships (SRS) or High Risk Ship (HRS)' taking into account various factors including company performance, the risk rating of the ship will determine its inspection frequency. Port State inspection reports should be retained on board for least two years

1.26 Name of Classification society:

if the vessel has record the name of the classification society issuing the statutory certificates and the name of the second society in other comments..
if the vessel has changed class within the past 6 month, record the previous classification society and date of change as an Observation.
Notes: A Classification Society Certificate must be available and periodic annual and intermediate surveys must have been carried out within the stipulated range dates.
Vessel holding an ice class notation must be constructed to meet the requirements specified by the classification Society and the officers and ratings provided with suitable clothing and appropriate training. Subject to the ice class notation to which the vessel was constructed, vessel will be equipped to maintain temperature within the accommodation, protect the hull, deck machinery, pipelines, ventilators, air inlets, sea inlets and ballast system against freezing. Means to receive and display ice charts and ice navigation information should be installed. protection to prevent the wheelhouse windows from freezing should be provided and if the wheelhouse is not totally enclosed protected locations on the bridge wings and searchlights on each bridge wing should also be provided. if the vessel holds an ice notation. inspectors should assess these provision and provide comments in the additional comment section at the end of this charter.
Where the vessel has changed class within the past six month a copy of the previous class latest survey status report must be available.
it is an important requirement of P and I Clubs that the vessel is fully in class with an approved Classification Society throughout the period of club entry.

1.27 Date of expiry of the class Certificate:

Note: This will usually be the same date as that of the next special survey.

1.28 Date the last special survey was completed

1.29 Date of departure from the last class-credited dry dock/repair period:

In addition, if the last dry docking was unscheduled, record the date and the reason.
Note: The date of the last class-credited dry dock can be found in the classification Society Survey Status Report. Details relating to the last bottom inspection can be found in the cargo ship safety construction certificate:
A minimum of two inspections of the outside of the ship's bottom during the five-year period of validity of the cargo ship safety construction certificate. In all cases, the interval between two such inspections shall not exceed 36 month (solar I/10)

1.30 Date of the last class Survey Status Report:

Note: The most recent report should be available and this should be dated not more than four month prior to the date of the inspection
Class Survey Status Report my not have been updated to reflect the latest status,, despite the date of the document. However, class survey leave documentation on board at the time of surveys stating what has been carried out and thessse should be examined to ensure the correct information is reported

1.31 What was the Operator’s defined maximum level of blood alcohol content?

OCIMF recommends that officers and ratings observe a period of abstinence from alcohol prior to scheduled watchkeeping duty or work periods. The objective should always be to ensure that, prior to going on scheduled duty the blood alcohol content of the seafarer is theoretically zero.
(OCIMF Guidelines for the Control of Drugs and Alcohol)

1.32 What was the recorded frequency of unannounced drug testing?

1.33 What was the recorded frequency of unannounced alcohol testing?

The frequency of unannounced testing should be sufficient so as to serve as an effective deterrent to abuse.
(OCIMF Guidelines for the Control of Drugs and Alcohol)

1.34 What was the date of the last unannounced on-board alcohol test?

1.35 What was the date of the last unannounced drug and alcohol test undertaken by an external agency?

Note: This should be the date of the test carried out on board either by an independent agency or under controlled conditions by ship’s personnel with specimens being forwarded to an independent agency.

Chapter 2. Certification and Documentation
CERTIFICATES:

2.1 Are all the statutory certificates listed below, where applicable, valid and have the annual and intermediate surveys been carried out within the required range dates?

2.1.1 Certificate of Registry

The Certificate of Registry should also state the service of the vessel – i.e. products and chemical tanker.
The registered address of the owner should be recorded on the Certificate of Registry.

2.1.2 Continuous Synopsis Record

The CSR records shall be kept on board the ship and shall be available for inspection at all times. Issued in accordance with SOLAS XI-1/5 by the Administration, from 1st July 2004. The Continuous Synopsis Record (CSR) may be provided in hard copy or in electronic format. Whenever any change to the entries listed in the current CSR document has taken place, pending the issue of a revised and updated CSR, the operator or the Master is required to complete an amendment form (Form 2), the original of which is to be attached to the current CSR. The index of amendments (Form 3) must be updated.
Only the ship’s Administration can issue a ship’s CSR document (Form 1) to a ship. The first CSR document issued to a ship is numbered 1 and subsequent CSR documents are to be sequentially numbered. The sequential numbering continues across change of flag throughout the life of the ship.
The operator or Master is required to complete the Amendment Form 2, the original of which must be attached to the current CSR, if there any amendments to any of the information recorded on the original CSR. A copy should be forwarded to the Administration. Form 3, the Index of Amendments, must be updated.

2.1.3 Document of Compliance (DoC)

The issuing authority for the DoC and the SMC may be different organisations, but the name of the operator of the vessel must be the same on both.
There should be a copy (which need not be a certified copy) of the DoC on board, which shows that the original has been endorsed for the annual verification.
The document should detail the cargo types the operator’s vessels are certified to carry – i.e. oil, chemicals and/or gas.
The Document of Compliance does not need to be endorsed for chemicals if the vessel has only a NLS Certificate and not a Certificate of Fitness.
An annual audit should be carried out within three months of the anniversary of the date of issue.

2.1.4 Safety Management Certificate (SMC)

The SMC is subject to renewal verification every five years and at least one intermediate verification, which, if only one, shall be between the second and third anniversary.

2.1.5 Safety Equipment Certificate, supplemented by Form E

The Safety Equipment Certificate does not need to be endorsed for chemicals if the vessel has only a NLS Certificate and not a Certificate of Fitness. The Long Range Identification and Tracking System entered into force on the 31st December 2008 or the first Radio Survey after that date. It applies to all cargo ships greater than 300 gt constructed before 31st December 2008 operating in Sea Areas A1, A2 and A3 (Not applicable to ships fitted with AIS operating solely in Sea Area A1).
Some class societies consider that if a vessel is fitted with an ECD and a full set of paper charts, the charts can be considered as a back-up to the ‘ECDIS’, and thus Form E endorsed to the effect that a back-up was fitted.

2.1.6 Safety Radio Certificate, supplemented by Form R

2.1.7 Safety Construction Certificate

The Safety Equipment, Safety Radio and Safety Construction Certificates might be on the same form, called the Ship Safety Certificate. Form C will be attached instead of Forms E and R. There should be evidence that each annual survey has been carried out.
The Safety Construction Certificate does not need to be endorsed for chemicals if the vessel has only a NLS Certificate and not a Certificate of Fitness.

2.1.8 IOPP Certificate, supplemented by Form A or B

Form B is only required if carrying oil cargoes or oil-like noxious liquids substances. A list of the oil-like noxious liquid substances allowed to be carried must be included.
Statement of Compliance supplement
Required for vessels subject to the Condition Assessment Scheme (see question 2.22). A Statement of Compliance should be issued by the Administration every 2½ years.
In accordance with MARPOL Annex 1/9 the IOPP Certificate shall be in either English, French or Spanish.

2.1.9 What is the vessel’s designation as recorded in the IOPP Certificate, Form B, Question 1.11?

Crude oil tanker;
Product carrier;
Product carrier not carrying fuel oil or heavy diesel oil as referred to in Regulation 20.2 or lubricating oil;
Crude oil/product carrier;
Combination carrier;
Ship, other than an oil tanker, with cargo tanks coming under Regulation 2.2 of Annex 1 of the Convention;
Oil tanker dedicated to the carriage of products referred to in Regulation 2.4;
The ship, being designated as a ‘crude oil tanker’ operating with COW, is also designated as a ‘product carrier’ operating with CBT, for which a separate IOPP Certificate has also been issued;
The ship, being designated as a ‘product carrier’ operating with CBT, is also designated as a ‘crude oil tanker’ operating with COW, for which a separate IOPP Certificate has also been issued.

2.1.10 Minimum Safe Manning Document

If the language used is not English, the information (contained in the Minimum Safe Manning Doc) given should include a translation into English. IMO Res. A.890 (21) Annex 3.2.

2.1.11 Certificate of Fitness for the Carriage of Chemicals or Gas

This will be issued either under the IBC or BCH Code for chemicals, or the IGC, GC or EGC Code for gas. Gas carriers carrying dual code cargoes must have a NLS Certificate. Chemical Certificates of Fitness must have been renewed prior to 1st January 2007.
The ISPP Certificate is subject to intermediate survey only.

2.1.12 Noxious Liquid Substances (NLS) Certificate

NLS means any substance indicated in the pollution category column on chapter 17 or 18 of the IBC Code or provisionally assessed under the provision of Reg. 6.3 as falling into Cat X, Y or Z. An NLS tanker is a ship constructed or adapted for the carriage of any liquid product listed in chapter 17 of the IBC. Gas carriers carrying dual-code cargoes will require both a Certificate of Fitness for gas cargoes and an NLS Certificate for the carriage of noxious liquid substances.
It is not a requirement that the Document of Compliance and Safety Equipment and Safety Construction Certificates are endorsed 'Chemical tanker' when the vessel is only carrying chemicals under a NLS Certificate.
Oil-Like NLS may only be carried on chemical tankers after 1st January 2007.
Under the Annex II revisions chemical carriers will be issued with either a CoF or a NLS Certificate, but not both. Gas carriers carrying dual-code cargoes will require both a CoF and a NLS Certificate.

2.1.13 Civil Liability Convention (1992) Certificate

The name of the owner should be the same as that on the Certificate of Registry.
The name and address of the owner must be that of the registered owner even if the bareboat charterer is named on the Certificate of Registry.

2.1.14 Name of P and I Club:

The name of the owner should be the same as that on the Certificate of Registry. A P and I Club Certificate of Entry should be provided to prove membership for the current year, which usually begins on the 20th February.
Record if the vessel is entered under the TOPIA 06 (Tanker Oil Pollution Indemnification Agreement 2006) or STOPIA 06. (Small Tanker Oil Pollution Indemnification Agreement 2006). These agreements are intended to result in oil pollution claims falling within the 1992 Civil Liability Convention, the 1992 Fund Convention and the 2003 Supplementary Fund Protocol to be shared more equitably between ship owners and the oil receivers who contribute to the 1992 Fund and the Supplementary Fund. This information will be recorded in the P & I Certificate of Entry. The monetary value of the coverage must not be recorded.

2.1 NOTE:
With respect to SOLAS certificates, if the language used is neither English nor French, the text shall include a translation into one of these languages. (SOLAS I/15)
Note: Situations may arise in cases where a Recognised Organisation (RO) issues the original certificates and the vessel’s flag State Administration conducts subsequent annual surveys. In such cases, it is acceptable for the flag State to endorse the RO’s certificates to attest that the annual surveys have been conducted.
Company and registered owner identification number is required to be recorded on these certificates either from 1st January 2009, or on the occasion of renewals of the certificates as may be required by the flag State Administration.
Certification should be checked to ensure that it is correctly completed. Common problems are as follows:
An incorrect deadweight entered on a certificate;
The maximum deadweight for those vessels with multiple Load Line Certificates not entered;
When certified for the carriage of both petroleum and chemicals (not solely under an NLS Certificate) the Safety Equipment, Safety Construction, Safety Management and ISS Certificates to be endorsed for both petroleum and chemicals;
Incorrect sludge tanks entered in IOPP Form B section 3.1. Bilge tanks can, but are not required to be, entered in section 3.3;
With vessels with multiple load lines, only the current Loadline Certificate should be in the certificate file, the others should be in the master’s safe;
Residual tanks are likely to be fitted with a connection to the cargo system and therefore should be considered as cargo tanks and have venting arrangements, secondary venting, and inert gas if fitted. They do not need to be identified as slop tanks but should be included in the total tank capacity in Form B section of the IOPP Certificate.
At least one Administration – Liberia – now issues electronic certificates and documents. These correspond to the forms required by SOLAS and MARPOL and contain electronic signatures and seals. The Liberian Administration states that these certificates shall at all times be considered valid. They are transmitted electronically and are protected from alteration or tampering. Inspectors should if necessary consider requesting evidence that the certificates and documents were actually sent by the Administration. Confirmation of the validity of a certificate or document may also be obtained from the Administration – in the case of Liberia at www.liscr.com ‘Document verification’. Each certificate and document has a unique Tracking Identification Number.

Safety Management and the Operator’s Procedures Manuals:

2.2 Do the operator’s procedures manuals comply with ISM Code requirements?

The Company should ensure that the safety management system operating on board the ship contains a clear statement emphasising the Master’s authority. The Company should establish in the safety management system that the Master has the overriding authority and the responsibility to make decisions with respect to safety and pollution prevention and to request the Company’s assistance as may be necessary.
(ISM Code 5.2)
Notes: It is not a requirement that the manuals be written in English. However, if not, the fact should be recorded in Comments.
Key elements of the ISM Code that should be incorporated into the procedures manuals are that they should be:
Relevant to the ship;
User friendly;
Written in the working language of the crew.
And that they should at least contain:
A safety and environmental policy;
Emergency procedures;
Emergency procedures should at least include collision, grounding, flooding, heavy weather damage, structural failure, fire (on deck and in cargo tanks, the engine room, pump room and accommodation), explosion, gas or toxic vapour release, critical machinery failure, rescue from enclosed spaces, serious injury and helicopter operations.
A description of the Master’s and crew’s responsibilities;
Shipboard operation plans;
Procedures for reporting non-conformities and for corrective action;
Maintenance programmes;
Procedures for auditing and reviews;
Programmes of drills,
The programme of drills must at least include the emergency procedures detailed above and in addition abandon ship, man overboard, pollution cleanup and ship security including dealing with terrorism and piracy.
Occasionally the operator’s procedures are available only in computerised versions. Ascertain whether there is adequate access for all personnel to a computer and whether adequate training has been given to all personnel in accessing the operator’s procedures using one. In any case, an up to date copy of the operator’s navigation policy and procedures must be available on the bridge and officers should demonstrate familiarity with the policy. If the policy is provided in electronic format only, a back-up independent means of power supply to the computer must be provided.
The owner, the charterer, the company operating the ship as defined in Regulation IX/1, or any other person shall not prevent or restrict the master of the ship from taking or executing any decision which, in the master’s professional judgement, is necessary for safety of life at sea and protection of the marine environment.
(SOLAS amendments 2003/4/5 V/34-1)

2.3 Does the Operator’s representative visit the vessel at least bi-annually?

Record the date of the last visit.
Note: The Operator’s representative must be a Technical/Marine superintendent or person familiar with the company's SMS and responsible for its implementation. The Operator’s representative’s visits should occur at approximately six month intervals.

2.4 Is a recent operator’s audit report available and is a close-out system in place for dealing with non-conformities?

Note: This audit must be conducted as part of the operator’s SMS procedures. Satisfactory evidence should record that corrective action was taken to rectify non-conformities. A close-out system, which includes a time limit for corrective action, informing the operator when completed and the operator ensuring that it has been, should be in place and the inspector should ensure that the required actions have been made within the required time. Inspectors must not use Operator’s audits as a means to record Observations.

2.5 Does the Master review the safety management system and report to the operator on any deficiencies?

Note: The Master’s review should be carried out annually and documentary evidence should be available.

Survey and Repair History:

2.6 Are class survey reports adequately filed?

Note: The file should contain class reports based on annual, intermediate, special and occasional surveys. The survey and repair reports should be adequately filed to facilitate checking.

2.7 Is the vessel free of conditions of class or significant recommendations, memoranda or notations?

Record any conditions of class or significant recommendations, memoranda or notations of any nature, including due dates as an Observation.
Where class records address structural issues of concern, including bottom pitting, areas of substantial corrosion, cracks, buckling or serious indents, record the details as to the extent and the measures taken to arrest further development.
Where a condition of class has been, the details including the condition, original date and the new date for completion should be recorded as an Observation.
If records indicate that measures have been taken to address or restore loss of longitudinal or transverse strength, record the details and the repairs undertaken in Other comments. The existence of doublers anywhere within the vessel’s structure and deck strapping must be reported as an Observation.
Note: If conditions of class have not been completed by the required due date, then the classification of the vessel may be subject to suspension. If a Class notation requires a ballast tank to be inspected annually, record this as an Observation.

2.8 Are procedures in place to carry out regular inspections of cargo and ballast tanks, void spaces, trunks and cofferdams by the vessel’s personnel and are records maintained?

Note: These requirements apply to every vessel regardless of whether it is subject to enhanced survey. In the case of oil and chemical tankers, inspections of cargo tanks should be made at intervals not exceeding 2.5 years. Ballast tanks should be inspected annually. In the case of gas carriers, ballast tanks, and void spaces, cofferdams, and hold spaces should be inspected annually. Records of all inspection results should be maintained. These should include a plan of each compartment with all its boundaries and should at least contain details and the location of:
Structural deterioration and failure;
Extent of corrosion, pitting and wastage;
Extent of deterioration of any coating;
Any leakages in bulkheads or pipework;
The condition of cargo handling and monitoring equipment;
Extent of sediment build-up.
On oil tankers and bulk carriers constructed on or after 1st July 1998: all dedicated seawater ballast tanks shall have an efficient corrosion prevention system, such as hard protective coatings or equivalent. The coatings should preferably be of light colour. The scheme for the selection, application and maintenance of the system shall be approved by the Administration. Where appropriate, sacrificial anodes shall be used.
(SOLAS amendments 2003/4/5 II-1 3-2)

Enhanced Survey Programme:

2.9 If the vessel is subject to the Enhanced Survey Programme, is the report file adequately maintained?

Key contents of the Condition Evaluation Report should be recorded in Other comments, including the date conducted, the tanks inspected and a summary of the condition of the tank coatings.
Note: SOLAS XI-1/2 requires all oil tankers, regardless of size, to be subject to Enhanced Surveys. The regulation refers to SOLAS II-1/2.12, which in turn refers to MARPOL Annex 1/1(5) which states that Oil tanker means a ship constructed or adapted primarily to carry oil in bulk in its cargo spaces and includes combination carriers, any NLS tanker as defined in Annex II of the present Convention and any gas carrier as defined in Regulation 3.20 of chapter II-1 of SOLAS 74 (as amended), when carrying a cargo or part cargo of oil in bulk. This effectively means that any vessel when carrying a cargo or part cargo of oil in bulk is subject to enhanced survey requirements under SOLAS XI-1/2.
The guidelines for enhanced surveys are contained in IMO Res. A.744(18). These include the requirement that an oil tanker over five years of age shall have on board a complete file of survey reports, including the results of all scantling measurement required, as well as the statement of structural work carried out. This file may be provided at the time of delivery but should, in all cases, be available on board at least one year prior to the vessel’s fifth anniversary. The file shall be accompanied by a Condition Evaluation Report containing conclusions on the structural condition of the ship and its residual scantlings.
‘Substantial corrosion’ is wastage in excess of 75% of allowable margins, but within acceptable limits.
Each Enhanced Survey File must contain a Condition Evaluation Report for each Enhanced Survey that has been carried out.

2.10 Is a thickness measurement report available?

Give brief details of the results of the thickness measurements.
Note: The form of tabulation of thickness measurements is detailed in Res. A.744(18).
Thickness measurements may be waived under some circumstances such as if the tank coatings are in good condition.

2.11 Is the following documentation available on board?

Main structural plans for cargo and ballast tanks;
Previous repair history;
Cargo and ballast history;
Extent of use of the inert gas plant and tank cleaning procedures.
Note: This documentation need not necessarily be kept in the same file.

Condition Assessment Scheme:

2.12 If the vessel is subject to the Condition Assessment Scheme (CAS), are copies of the Condition Assessment Scheme Final Report and Review Record available?

The results and dates of CAS surveys should be reported in Other comments.
CAS is a separate issue from enhanced survey and although CAS does not specify structural standards in excess of the provisions of other IMO conventions, its requirements stipulate more stringent and transparent verification of the reported structural condition of the vessel and that documentary and survey procedures have been properly carried out and completed. The scheme requires that compliance with the CAS is aligned to the enhanced survey programme of inspections concurrent with intermediate or renewal surveys currently required by IMO Res. A.744(18). (MEPC.94)
Note: In accordance with the revised MARPOL 20, CAS is to be applied to all Category 2 and Category 3 oil tankers of 15 years and older.
The Administration may permit Category 2 and 3 tankers to continue in operation beyond 2010 subject to satisfactory results from the Condition Assessment Scheme, but the continued operation must not go beyond the anniversary of the date of delivery of the ship in 2015 or the date on which the ship reaches 25 years of age after the date of its delivery, whichever is earlier.

2.13 Has a Survey Plan for the CAS been completed and submitted by the operator?

Note: The Survey Plan should be submitted not less than 2 months prior to the commencement of CAS.

2.14 Has the vessel been enrolled in a Classification Society Condition Assessment programme (CAP)?

Note: Condition Assessment Programme (CAP) is a voluntary programme for ships over a certain DWT and age, if the vessel is NOT enrolled in CAP then answer the question ‘NA’.
If the vessel is enrolled in CAP then record the following:-
Which Class society;
Which areas covered (Hull, Machinery, Cargo Systems) and what rating was awarded for each.
Date of the CAP survey (The date should be that when the survey was actually completed, not the certificate date).

Publications:

2.15 Are the publications listed in the table below, as applicable to the vessel, available?

Note: The inspector should make spot checks to ensure that the publications, as appropriate to the vessel, are provided.

General and Management Publications:

2.15.1 SOLAS Consolidated edition IMO 5th 2009

2.15.2 International Life Saving Appliance Code (LSA Code)
The Code includes ’Testing and Evaluation of Lifesaving Equipment’. IMO 3rd 2010

2.15.2 International Life Saving Appliance Code (LSA Code)
The Code includes ’Testing and Evaluation of Lifesaving Equipment’. IMO 3rd 2010

2.15.3 International Code for Fire Safety Systems (FSS Code) IMO 2nd 2007

2.15.4 International Ship and Port Facility Security Code (ISPS Code) IMO 1st 2003

2.15.5 International Safety Management Code (ISM Code) and the guidelines of the implementation of the ISM Code. IMO 3rd 2010

2.15.6 International Standards on Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers (STCW)
These are to include amendments 2 and 3. IMO - 2001

2.15.7 Guidance Manual for Tanker Structures TSCF/IACS 1st 1997

2.15.8 Guidelines for the Control of Drugs and Alcohol on Board Ships OCIMF - 1995

2.15.9 Guidelines on Fatigue
It is recommended that the publication ‘The Human Element, a guide to Human Behaviour in the Shipping Industry’ published by the UK MCA be carried on board to add further guidance on the issue of fatigue. This question is not to be marked 'NO', if this publication is not carried. IMO 2002

Navigational Publications:

2.15.10 Bridge Procedures Guide ICS 4th 2007

2.15.11 Collision Regulations, Consolidated edition IMO 4th 2003

2.15.12 Bridge Team Management NI 2nd 2004

2.15.13 Ship’s Routeing IMO 9th 2008

2.15.14 International Code of Signals IMO 4th 2005

2.15.15 International Aeronautical and Maritime Search
and Rescue Manual, IAMSAR Manual (Volume III) IMO 8th 2010

2.15.16 Peril at Sea and Salvage OCIMF/ICS 5th 1998

2.15.17 Guide to Helicopter/Ship Operations ICS 4th 2008

Mooring Publications:

2.15.18 Mooring Equipment Guidelines OCIMF 3rd 2008

2.15.19 Effective Mooring OCIMF 3rd 2010

2.15.20 Recommendations for Equipment employed in the Bow Mooring of Ships at Single Point Moorings OCIMF 4th 2007

2.15.21 Anchoring Systems and Procedures
Published October 2010, owners should be given until January 2012 to obtain a copy. OCIMF 1st 2010

General Tanker Publications:

2.15.22 MARPOL 73/78 Consolidated edition IMO - 2006

2.15.23 Guidelines for the Implementation of MARPOL Annex V IMO 2006

2.15.24 ISGOTT OCIMF/ICS 5th 2006

2.15.25 Ship to Ship Transfer Guide (Petroleum) OCIMF/ICS 4th 2005

2.15.26 USCG CFR 33 Parts 1 – 124
USCG CFR 33 Parts 125 – 199
USCG CFR 46 Parts 1 – 40 USCG - 2006

Petroleum Tanker Specific Publications:

2.15.27 Recommendations for Oil Tanker Manifolds and Associated Equipment OCIMF 4th 1991

2.15.28 Inert Gas Systems IMO 3rd 1990

2.15.29 Crude Oil Washing Systems IMO 4th 2000

Chemical Tanker Specific Publications:

2.15.30 IBC Code, combined with the Index of Dangerous Chemicals
Required for any vessel carrying MARPOL Annex II cargoes, including gas carriers carrying dual code cargoes. The Index is part of the Code. IMO 3rd 2007

2.15.31 Code for the Construction & Equipment of Ships Carrying Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk, 2008 Edition Code with amendments, if applicable IMO 2008

2.15.32 Tanker Safety Guide (Chemicals) ICS 3rd 2002

Gas Tanker Specific Publications:

2.15.33 IGC Code and 1993 supplement
Required for any vessel carrying gas cargoes. IMO 2nd 1993

2.15.34 GC Code, if applicable IMO - 1983

2.15.35 EGC Code, if applicable and 1980 supplement IMO - 1976

2.15.36 Tanker Safety Guide (Liquefied Gas) ICS 2nd 1995

2.15.37 Ship to Ship Transfer Guide (Liquefied Gas) (LPG tankers only) OCIMF/ICS 2nd 1995

2.15.38 Liquefied Gas Handling Principles on Ships and Terminals SIGTTO 3rd 2000

2.15.39 An Introduction to the Design and Maintenance of Cargo System Pressure Relief Valves on Board Gas Tankers SIGTTO 2nd 1998

2.15.40 Liquefied Petroleum Gas Sampling Procedures
(LPG Tankers Only) SIGTTO 1st 2010

2.15 NOTE: Consolidated editions of SOLAS do not contain the requirements for vessels constructed before the date that some Chapters of the particular edition were published. Previous editions of SOLAS and their amendments, as applicable to the vessel, should therefore be retained on board for reference.

Chapter 3. Crew Management
Note: Co-operation and communication between officers and crew should be observed and evaluated. All parties should share a common goal to operate the vessel safely and efficiently.

3.1 Does the manning level meet or exceed that required by the Minimum Safe Manning Document?

Record the Required manning and the Actual manning in Other Comments
The IMO Res. A.890(21) Principles of Safe Manning addresses the functions to be addressed when determining the safe manning of a vessel, including navigation, cargo handling, safety, engineering, electrical and electronic engineering, radio communications and maintenance. (Res. A.890(21) Annex 2)
The Resolution also states that except in ships of limited size or propulsion power (which are not quantified), the determination of the minimum safe manning level should also take into account the provision of qualified officers to ensure that it is not necessary for the Master or Chief Engineer to keep regular watches by adopting a three-watch system. (Res. A.890(21) Annex 2)
The Administration should take into account any additional workload which may result from the implementation of the Ship Security Plan and ensure that the ship is sufficiently and effectively manned. In doing so the Administration should verify that ships are able to implement the hours of work and other measures to address fatigue which have been promulgated by national law. (ISPS Code Part B 4.28)
Note: Inspectors should review the number of personnel on board against the vessel’s trading pattern and level of operation and should consider issues such as whether:
The bridge is being adequately manned under all sailing conditions;
There are sufficient personnel to moor the ship safely;
The cargo operation is being effectively controlled (if two deck officers alternate the cargo watches, is the second officer adequately experienced and qualified and are ratings sufficiently familiar with the operation);
Safety functions are being adequately addressed (drills, ship security issues, equipment maintenance); and
The quality of rest is adequate considering the trading area and the workload.

3.2 Are the STCW and flag Administration’s regulations that control hours of work to minimise fatigue being followed?

All persons who are assigned duty as officer in charge of a watch or as a rating forming part of a watch shall be provided a minimum of 10 hours rest in any 24-hour period.
The hours of rest may be divided into no more than two periods, one of which shall be at least 6 hours in length.
The requirements for rest periods need not be maintained in the case of an emergency or drill, or in other overriding conditions. ‘Overriding operational conditions’ are defined (Section B VIII/1.1) as to mean only essential shipboard work which cannot be delayed for safety or environmental reasons, or which could not have been reasonably anticipated at the commencement of the voyage.
Notwithstanding the above, the minimum period of 10 hours may be reduced to not less than 6 consecutive hours provided that any such reduction shall not extend beyond 2 days and not less than 70 hours of rest are provided in each 7-day period. (STCW Code Part A VIII/1)
Note: The 2006 Maritime Labour Convention (MLC) which is expected to come into force in 2011, sets out requirements relating to working hours and hours of rest for seafarers other than watchkeepers. At the flag Administration’s option, these may be calculated under two formulas, relating either to Hours of Work or Hours of Rest. The resulting stipulated minimum hours of rest are not the same. Under the Hours of Work calculation, a seafarer must have at least 96 hours rest per week. Under the Hours of Rest calculation, a seafarer must have at least 77 hours rest per week. Inspectors must therefore ascertain under which formula the vessel is obliged to comply, to confirm that the mandatory hours of rest, or hours or work are being observed when responding to Question 3.3.

3.3 Do all personnel maintain hours of rest records and are the hours of rest in compliance with ILO or STCW requirements?

Administrations should consider the introduction of a requirement that records of hours of work or rest of seafarers should be maintained. (STCW Code Section B VIII/1-4)
All persons who are assigned duty as officer in charge of a watch or as a rating forming part of a watch shall be provided a minimum of 10 hours rest in any 24-hour period.
The hours of rest may be divided into no more than two periods, one of which shall be at least 6 hours in length.
The requirements for rest periods need not be maintained in the case of an emergency or drill, or in other overriding conditions. ‘Overriding operational conditions’ are defined (Section B VIII/1.1) as to mean only essential shipboard work which cannot be delayed for safety or environmental reasons, or which could not have been reasonably anticipated at the commencement of the voyage.
Notwithstanding the above, the minimum period of 10 hours may be reduced to not less than 6 consecutive hours provided that any such reduction shall not extend beyond 2 days and not less than 70 hours of rest are provided in each 7-day period. (STCW Code Part A VIII/1)
Note: Compliance with the mandatory STCW and the flag State’s work or rest requirements must be ascertained for all senior officers. For junior officers and other personnel, these must be checked on a random basis. Hours of Rest for watchkeepers are controlled under the requirements of the STCW Code Part A VIII/1. In the case of non-watchkeepers, the requirements are set out in MLC 2006.
Rest/Work records must be reviewed against these and checked against actual operations related to additional watchkeeping duties associated with weather, traffic density or pilotage, mooring/unmooring or operations. Evidence of additional duties may be found in Log Books, Cargo Order Books, Oil Record Books, Cargo/Ballast Transfer Records, Planned Machinery Maintenance Logs, Enclosed Space Entry or Hot Work Permits, or timesheets for Tank Cleaning Operations. Record all irregularities as Observations.

3.4 Are all personnel able to communicate effectively in a common language?

Record the common working language in Other comments.
On all ships, to ensure effective crew performance in safety matters, a working language shall be established and recorded in the ship’s logbook. The company or the Master as appropriate shall determine the appropriate working language. Each seafarer shall be required to understand and, where appropriate, give orders and instructions and to report back in that language. If the working language is not an official language of the flag of the State the ship is entitled to fly, all plans and lists required to be posted shall include a translation into the working language. (SOLAS V/14.3)

3.5 Does the operator provide a training policy exceeding statutory requirements?

Record the type of training the operator provides in Other comments.
Note: Training includes formal courses, In-house or on-board training and the regulated use of videos and Computer Based Training (CBT. Training may also include core competency based training for officers as they progress through the company and from one certificate of competency to the next.

3.6 Have senior deck officers attended bridge team management courses?

Note: These should be formal shore-based courses of at least three days duration and officers should have evidence of having attended them.
Officers should have a thorough knowledge of effective bridge teamwork procedures. The methods for demonstrating competence are determined by examination and assessment of evidence obtained from one or more of the following:
approved in-service training;
approved training ship experience;
approved simulator training, where appropriate;
approved laboratory equipment training. (STCW Table A-II/1)
The Nautical Institute recommends that in order to be effective a BTM course should last at least three days, preferably five.

3.7 Has the Master attended a ship handling course where applicable?

The STCW Code Part B Section B-V/a refers.
Note: The IMO Model course 1.22 – Ship Simulator and Bridge Teamwork may be of assistance in the preparation of courses. A Master with less than three years sea time in rank, or who has practical experience of less than thirty port entry/departures as Master, must have attended a ship handling course or have sufficient practical experience. Practical experience may include training at Chief Officer rank under a Master’s supervision, provided this is properly documented. In the event that the Master has in excess of ten years experience, this question should be answered ‘NA’.

It is important that masters and chief mates should have had relevant experience and training before assuming the duties of master or chief mate of large ships or ships having unusual manoeuvring and handling characteristics significantly different from those in which they have recently served. Such characteristics will generally be found in ships which are of considerable deadweight or length or of special design or of high speed. (STCW Code Part B V/a.1)
Before initially assuming command of one of the ships referred to above, the prospective master should have sufficient and appropriate general experience as master or chief mate, and either:
Have sufficient and appropriate experience manoeuvring the same ship under supervision or in manoeuvring a ship having similar manoeuvring characteristics; or
Have attended an approved ship handling simulator course on an installation capable of simulating the manoeuvring characteristics of such a ship. (STCW Code Part B V/a.3)

3.8 No question assigned.

3.9 Where the vessel carries chemicals, has a formal programme of regular and appropriate medical examinations for personnel been implemented?

Medical checks are mainly benzene related.

Crew Qualifications:

3.10 Does the officers’ matrix posted for the vessel on the SIRE website accurately reflect the information relating to the officers on board at the time of the inspection?

Note: The operator is responsible to maintain up-to-date records relating to the officers on board the vessel at any given time, using the electronic Officer Matrix that forms part of the SIRE HVPQ for each vessel which has been submitted to SIRE. Prior to boarding, inspectors must access and download the HVPQ including the Officers’ Matrix. The Matrix must be either printed out or downloaded and used during the inspection to check officer qualifications and experience. In the case of the senior officers (Master, Chief Engineer, Chief Officer and Second Engineer/First Assistant engineer), the actual details must be checked against the data contained in the Matrix and an Observation made in the event of any irregularities. Spot checks must be made of the actual records applicable to junior officers. Inspectors must take into account that where recent changes of personnel have taken place, it is not realistic to instantly update the matrix and allowances must be made. Observations must not be made unless the personnel change(s) took place more than seven days before the date of the inspection. It is not essential that the Officer’s Matrix is provided in paper form and inspectors are not expected to seek a paper copy from the vessel.
If the officer’s certificates are not issued by the same Administration as the flag State of the vessel, then an endorsement (or a separate document) is required which attests to the recognition of that certificate by the vessel’s Administration. An Administration may allow a seafarer to serve for a period not exceeding 3 months, provided that documentary proof of an application is readily available.
The operator’s policy should ensure that the Master and Chief Officer and the Chief Engineer and second engineer, are not relieved at the same time and that there is a suitable handover period for all four ranks.

3.11 Are those officers who have immediate responsibility for cargo transfer, in possession of the Certificates of Specialised Training as applicable to the type of cargo being carried?

Officers and ratings assigned specific duties and responsibilities related to cargo or cargo equipment on tankers shall have completed:
At least three months of approved seagoing service on tankers in order to acquire adequate knowledge of safe operational practices; or
An approved tanker familiarisation course. (STCW Convention V/1.1)
Masters, Chief Engineers, chief mates, second engineer officers and any person with immediate responsibility for loading, discharging and care in transit or handling cargo shall, in addition to meeting the requirements of paragraph 1, have:
Experience appropriate to their duties on the type of tanker on which they serve; and
Completed an approved specialised training programme. (STCW Convention V/1.2)
Administrations shall ensure that an appropriate certificate is issued to Masters and officers who are qualified in accordance with paragraphs 1 or 2 as appropriate, or that an existing certificate is duly endorsed. Every rating who is so qualified shall be duly certificated. (STCW Convention V/1.4)
Certificates should be in the official language of the issuing country and should include a translation into English. (STCW Convention I/2.1)
Any certificate required by the STCW Convention must be kept available in its original form on board the ship on which the holder is serving. (STCW Convention I/2.9)
Note: Some Administrations interpret the expression ‘immediate responsibility’ to require all watchkeeping deck officers to possess Specialised Training certification. Certain Administrations also require pumpmen to possess this same Specialised Training certification. If all officers are NOT in possession of certificates attesting to Specialised Training, inspectors must evaluate the responsibilities that are placed upon officers who are left alone in charge of cargo or ballast transfer operations. If these involve any actions or decisions that are made without the authority of the officer in charge of the transfer, then an Observation must be made.
Junior officers and ratings assigned specific duties and responsibilities related to cargo or cargo equipment will automatically be qualified at an operational level for all three types of tanker if they have completed the approved familiarisation course (STCW V/1.1.1). If their certification is based on seagoing service then it will be solely for the type of tanker they served on.
If, in addition to the Master, only two deck officers share the cargo watches, both should have completed the approved specialised training programme.
Where a vessel is carrying chemicals under a Noxious Liquids Certificate, it is a matter for the particular Administration whether the officers require chemical tanker endorsements in addition to their petroleum endorsements.
DCE’s do not necessarily have to be endorsed by the Administration, although some do require it.

Drug and Alcohol Policy:

3.12 Does the operator’s Drug and Alcohol policy meet OCIMF guidelines?

Chapter 4. Navigation

Inspection of the bridge will normally take place when the vessel is alongside a terminal therefore the inspector must closely inspect charts, log books and other records to determine that the vessel has been safely navigated and that the bridge has at all times been adequately manned. Compliance with the operator’s navigation procedures should be evaluated both by observation and by discussion with the Master and officers. The operator’s navigation procedures must be supplemented as required by the Master’s Standing Orders and the Bridge Order Book. The objective should be to ascertain that such policies are understood and are being complied with.
All navigation equipment should be in an operational condition regardless as to whether or not it is required by SOLAS. Any bridge equipment which is not functioning must be recorded as an Observation.

Policies, Procedures and Documentation:

4.1 Is the vessel provided with adequate operator’s navigation instructions and procedures?

Every shipowning or management company should have a safety management policy and procedures. It should provide practical guidance concerning safe navigation and include a clear statement emphasising the Master's authority. The company should establish in the SMS that the Master has the overriding authority and the responsibility to make decisions with respect to safety and pollution prevention and to request the company's assistance as may be necessary. The guidance should cover:
Allocation of bridge watchkeeping duties and responsibilities for navigational procedures;
Procedures for voyage planning and execution;
Chart and nautical publication correction procedures;
Procedures to ensure that all essential navigation equipment and main and auxiliary machinery are available and fully operational;
Advice concerning emergency responses;
Ship position reporting procedures;
Accident and near miss reporting procedures;
Recording of voyage events;
Procedures for familiarisation training and handover at crew changes;
A recognised system for identifying special training needs;
Company contacts, including the designated person under the ISM Code. (BPG 1.3)
Note: An up to date copy of the operator’s navigation policy and procedures must be available on the bridge and officers should demonstrate familiarity with the policy. If the policy is provided in electronic format only, a back-up independent means of power supply to the computer must be provided.

4.2 Has the Master written his own Standing Orders and are Bridge Orders being completed?

At daily intervals, the Master should write in the bridge order book what is expected of the OOW, with particular reference to his requirements during the hours of darkness. These orders must be signed by each OOW when going on watch. (BPG 1.3.1.1)
Note: Standing Order and Bridge Order Books should be checked to ascertain that all officers are instructed as to their responsibilities. Standing orders should be written by the Master to reflect his own requirements particular to the vessel, the trade, and the experience of the deck officers aboard at the time. The Master’s Standing Orders must not conflict with the ship’s SMS.
If all the deck officers speak the same language then the night orders can be written in that language, which need not necessarily be English.

4.3 Have the deck officers countersigned the Master’s Standing Orders and Bridge Orders as being read and understood?

4.4 Are deck log books and engine movement (bell) books correctly maintained and is an adequate record being kept of all the navigational activities, both at sea and under pilotage?

All ships engaged on international voyages shall keep a record of navigational activities and incidents which are of importance to safety of navigation and which must contain sufficient detail to restore a complete record of the voyage. (SOLAS V/28)
Note: Information which should be recorded includes that concerning position, course and speed, the times and positions when passing waypoints, land or sea marks, weather and sea conditions and incidents and events including pilot embarkation/disembarkation, times of attendance and connection and disconnection of tugs, times of berthing and un-berthing, hazardous occurrences and accidents. Effectiveness of the radar(s) as measured by the performance monitor(s) should be recorded by the OOW at the end of each watch whenever the radar(s) are operational to ensure that optimal efficiency is being maintained. A numeric, percentage, graphical, or other measurement value should be recorded.
Records should be maintained whether the vessel is on international voyages or not.
Log books and engine movement (bell) books should be checked to ensure that they are up to date with entries properly made in ink and not in pencil.
An electronic chart display system with GPS input (provided the equipment is in good order and the datum used in each case is the same) provides a good record of the navigational activities.
Where controllable pitch propellers are fitted, the times of significant changes of pitch should be recorded if this information is not automatically logged.
Each ship engaged on international voyages exceeding 48 hours shall submit a daily report to its company which shall retain it and all subsequent daily reports for the duration of the voyage. Daily reports may be transmitted by any means provided that they are transmitted to the company as soon as practicable after determination of the position named in the report. Automated reporting systems may be used, provided that they include a recording function of their transmission and that those functions and interfaces with position-fixing equipment are subjected to regular verification by the ship’s master. The report shall contain the following:
Ship’s position
Ship’s course and speed;
Details of any external or internal conditions that are affecting the ship’s voyage or the normal safe operation of the ship. (SOLAS amendments 2003-4-5 V/28.2)

4.5 Are the vessel’s manoeuvring characteristics displayed on the bridge?

For all ships of 100 metres in length and over and all chemical tankers and gas carriers regardless of size, a pilot card, wheelhouse poster and manoeuvring booklet should be provided. (IMO Res. A.601(15))
Note: The recommended form of the wheelhouse poster is contained in IMO Res. A.601(15) and in the Bridge Procedures Guide. (Annex A4. Page 82)

4.6 Are procedures in place for the testing of bridge equipment before arrival and departure?

Within 12 hours before departure, the ship's steering gear shall be checked and tested by the ship's crew.
The Administration may waive the requirements to carry out the checks for ships which regularly engage on voyages of short duration. Such ships shall carry out these checks and tests at least once a week.
(SOLAS V/26.5).
Note: Procedures for testing of bridge equipment shall follow the checklist B2 in the Bridge Procedures Guide (BPG 4th Edition 1997).

4.7 Are records maintained of fire and safety rounds being completed after each watch?

Note: A lookout should not leave the bridge during the watch as this contravenes the requirements of SOLAS and STCW. Rounds of the vessel should be conducted after the end of each watch during the hours of darkness, typically from 2200 to 0600. It is recognised that in the summer months in the higher latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere that permanent daylight will occur and it is expected that rounds of the vessel should be conducted from 2200 to 0600hrs.

4.8 Are checklists for pre-arrival, pre-departure, watch handover, pilot-Master exchange and pilot card effectively completed?

Note: The Master and pilot information exchanges must be completed by both the Master and the pilot. Each Master to pilot exchange must include a minimum underkeel clearance calculation and limitations relating to the maximum permissible bollard pull from tugs that are to be utilised. Details of defective equipment that might affect the safe navigation of the vessel must be recorded on the Master to pilot exchange.

4.9 Does the operator provide guidance on minimum under keel clearance and squat?

Record in Other comments, the operator’s policy relating to underkeel clearance requirements for ocean passage, shallow water, within port limits and while alongside the berth or at SBM/CBM mooring.
Note: The operator's policy relating to underkeel clearance should be included as part of the Master/Pilot interchange in the form of a written underkeel calculation. The policy must provide a minimum allowed under keel clearance for both coastal, river navigation, while alongside and guidance on the action to be taken in shallow water to ensure the minimum clearance is maintained.
Under keel clearance can be affected by several factors and the underkeel calculations should include, but not necessarily be limited to;
The predicted height of the tide;
Changes in the predicted tidal height, which are caused by wind speed and direction and high or low barometric pressure;
Nature and stability of the bottom – i.e. sand waves, siltation etc.;
Accuracy of hydrographic data, (References to reliability is often included on charts);
Change of water density and the increase in draught due to fresh water allowance;
The vessel’s size and handling characteristics and increase in draught due to heel;
Wave response allowance, which is the vertical displacement of the hull due to heave, roll and pitch motions;
The reliability of draft observations and calculations, including estimates of hogging and sagging;
Reduced depths over pipelines and other obstructions.
Once the available under keel clearance has been calculated taking into account all the applicable factors, including those above, it can then be determined whether any speed reduction is required to counter the effects of squat.
Squat information relevant to the vessel for both loaded and ballast passages should be readily available on the bridge.
Where there is doubt that sufficient clearance can be maintained during any part of the voyage, the Master must:
Inform the operator at the earliest opportunity;
If within port limits, obtain the latest sounding information, including the nature of the bottom, directly from the local authorities or terminal well before arrival. Should this not be available, the Master should request guidance from the operator;
If alongside, vacate the berth if in any doubt about the risk of grounding. It should be recognised that occasionally smaller vessels ‘take the ground’ – i.e. sit on the bottom - at some ports. This may even be to the extent that the berth dries out completely. In such circumstances considerable reliance is placed on previous experience, as often there is no other information available to ensure that the berth is safe. In such circumstances, documentary evidence should be sought to demonstrate that the operator is aware that the vessel takes the ground at these particular ports and that the situation has been fully assessed, including the effects of stress and stability and the nature and level of the bottom. Adequate procedures should be in place for maintaining services such as fire fighting and engine cooling water.
The wheelhouse poster should be permanently displayed in the wheelhouse. It should be of such a size to ensure ease of use. (IMO Res. A.601(15))

4.10 Is an effective bridge team structure in place?

The bridge team is established so that the most effective use can be made of available manpower in order that established work procedures are followed, risk is minimised and the ships are navigated safely. All ship’s personnel who have bridge navigational duties will be part of the bridge team. The Master and pilot(s), as necessary, will need the support of the team, which will comprise the OOW, a helmsman and lookout(s) as required.
The OOW is in charge of the bridge and the bridge team for that watch, until relieved.
It is important that the bridge team works together closely, both within a particular watch and across watches, since decision made on one watch may have an impact on another watch.
The bridge team also has an important role in maintaining communications with the engine room and other operating areas of the ship. (BPG 1.25)

4.11 Has the bridge been adequately manned at all stages of the voyage?

Note: The experience of the watch officers, weather and traffic conditions will dictate the required bridge manning composition at any specific time. Each stage of the voyage must be reviewed to establish that sufficient personnel were on the bridge and that an effective communications and teamwork structure was in place. Inspectors must take into account the impact of additional bridge manning upon the work load of any individual and impact of hours of rest regulations.

4.12 Are the bridge lookout arrangements adequate?

Every vessel shall at all times maintain a proper look-out by sight and hearing as well as by all available means appropriate to the prevailing circumstances and conditions as to make a full appraisal of the situation and the risk of collision. (Colregs Rule 5)
The look-out must be able to give his full attention to the keeping of a proper look-out and no other duties shall be undertaken or assigned which could interfere with that task. (STCW A-VIII/2-3.1/14)
The officer in charge of the navigational watch may be the sole look-out in daylight provided that on each occasion:
The situation has been carefully assessed and it has been established without doubt that it is safe to do so;
Full account has been taken of all relevant factors including, but not limited to:
State of weather;
Visibility;
Traffic density;
Proximity of dangers to navigation; and
The attention necessary when navigating in or near traffic separation schemes;
Assistance is immediately available to be summoned to the bridge when any change in the situation so requires. (STCW A-VIII/2-3.1/15)
It is of special importance that at all times the officer in charge of the navigational watch ensures that a proper look-out is maintained. In a ship with a separate chartroom the officer in charge of the navigational watch may visit the chartroom, when essential, for a short period for the necessary performance of navigational duties, but shall first ensure that is safe to do so and that a proper look-out is maintained.
(STCW A-VIII/2-3.1/32)
Note: The operator’s navigational instructions and procedures must contain guidance relating to circumstances when the officer of the watch may be the sole lookout, including considerations that the OOW has had sufficient rest prior to starting the watch. A lookout should not leave the bridge during the watch as this contravenes the requirements of SOLAS and STCW.

Navigation Equipment:

4.13 If a bridge navigational watch alarm system (BNWAS) is fitted is it operational at all times when the vessel is at sea?

All ships of 150 gross tonnage and upwards shall be fitted with a bridge navigational watch alarm system (BNWAS), as follows:
Cargo ships of 150 gross tonnage and upwards constructed on or after 1st July 2011;
Cargo ships of 3,000 gross tonnage and upwards constructed before 1st July 2011, not later than the first survey after 1st July 2012;
Cargo ships of 500 gross tonnage and upwards but less than 3,000 gross tonnage constructed before 1st July 2011, not later than the first survey after 1st July 2013; and
Cargo ships of 150 gross tonnage and upwards but less than 500 gross tonnage constructed before 1st July 2011, not later than the first survey after 1st July 2014.
The bridge navigational watch alarm system shall be in operation whenever the ship is underway at sea. A bridge navigational watch alarm system (BNWAS) installed prior to 1st July 2011 may subsequently be exempted from full compliance with the standards adopted by the Organisation, at the discretion of the Administration. (SOLAS V/19.2.2.3)
Note: A bridge watch alarm system is a device which triggers an alarm if an Officer on Watch (OOW) becomes incapable of performing the OOW’s duties. IMO has adopted the performance standard as MSC.128(75) and there are ships which have already installed the equipment on a voluntary basis.

4.14 Is the standard magnetic compass operational, properly maintained and adjusted?

Note: The magnetic compass must be in good working order and the ship’s heading clearly displayed at the main steering position. The binnacle lights must be operational. The compass must be provided with an azimuth mirror or other means to take bearings. The compass shall be adjusted by a qualified compass adjuster if a period of two years has elapsed since the last adjustment and a record of compass deviations has not been maintained, or the recorded deviations are excessive or when the compass shows physical defects.
Masters and Officers should be aware that portable electrical equipment (e.g. radios and tape recorders) or items made of steel can affect the performance of a compass and must ensure that such items are kept away from the compass position. A compass deviation card should be prepared each time the compass is adjusted. Separate deviation cards should be prepared for the standard compass and the transmitting magnetic compass repeater, if fitted.

4.15 Is the gyro compass operating satisfactorily?

Note: The gyro compass (or compasses) should be checked to ensure that the speed and latitude corrections are properly applied. Gyro maintenance records should be reviewed to confirm that the gyro(s) are operating satisfactorily. Each of the gyro repeaters, including those that may be fitted in the emergency steering position and the engine control room must be synchronised. Where two gyros are fitted, a change-over device must be fitted and change-over procedures must be posted.

4.16 Are auto to manual steering changeover procedures clearly identified?

Simple operating instructions with a block diagram showing the change-over procedures for remote control systems and steering gear power units shall be permanently displayed on the navigation bridge and in the steering gear compartment. (SOLAS V/26.3.1)

4.17 Is manual steering used during periods of river transits and when navigating through restricted waters?

Note: Times and locations of engaging hand steering should be recorded in the deck log book or bell book.

4.18 Are regular gyro and magnetic compass errors being taken and are they being recorded?

Magnetic and gyro compass errors should be checked and recorded each watch, where possible, using either azimuth or transit bearings. A record of magnetic and gyro compass courses to steer and compass errors should be maintained and kept available to the helmsman. (BPG 4.6.3)
Note: The error of the gyro should be determined by external observations – celestial bearings, transits etc. and the gyro and magnetic compass headings then compared to determine the magnetic compass error. Where a gyro repeater is used to take a bearing, an accurate comparison between the repeater and the Master gyro should be made. When compass errors cannot be taken it is not necessary to state this in the compass error book.
The lack of regular compass errors is a very common observation. It is not expected that an error be taken several times a watch, but at changes of course the magnetic and gyro compass should at least be compared and the readings entered in the Deck Log Book.
Errors should be taken at sufficiently frequent intervals that adequate evidence can be provided that the deviation has been determined where reasonable and practicable for each course. Errors can be taken by various methods but the use of leading lights and transit bearings between two prominent fixed objects should not be forgotten.

4.19 Do the magnetic compass errors recorded in the compass error book broadly agree with the deviation card?

Note: The previous record completed by a certified compass adjuster should be retained to prove that adjustment has not been required in the intervening period. A comparison between the magnetic and gyro headings should be made at each substantial course alteration and once each watch. Details must be recorded in the Deck Log Book. Some Administrations require compass errors to be recorded in the Deck Log Book rather than a separate Compass Error Book.
Where there are consistently large differences between the errors recorded on the deviation card and those being determined by observation the magnetic compass requires adjusting. The magnetic compass should be adjusted after each docking only when major structural repairs have been undertaken and it actually needs adjusting. It is not necessary for the magnetic compass to be adjusted by a certified compass adjuster if the deviations remain within reasonable limits, say 5° error, but the master should swing the compass and record the deviations at least every year.

Charts and Publications:

4.20 Has a system been established to ensure that nautical publications and charts are on board and current?

All ships should carry adequate and up to date official nautical charts, Sailing Directions, Lists of Lights, Notices to Mariners, Tide Tables and all other nautical publications necessary for the intended voyage.
An on board chart and publication management system is recommended to ensure that records are kept of what charts and publications are carried and when they were last corrected. (BPG 4.11.1)
Notes: Charts should be in good condition. The paper surface should be intact and charts should be replaced when torn, not taped together. Procedures should be checked to ensure that the ordering and supply of charts, publications, and corrections provides these to the vessel in a timely manner.

4.21 If the vessel is provided solely with paper charts are all charts required for the trading areas of the vessel on board and are these fully corrected?

All ships irrespective of size shall have nautical charts and nautical publications to plan and display the ship’s route for the intended voyage and to plot and monitor positions throughout the voyage. (SOLAS V/19.2.1.4)
Nautical charts and nautical publications, such as sailing directions, lists of lights, notices to mariners, tide tables and all other publications necessary for the intended voyage, shall be adequate and up to date.
(SOLAS V/27)
Notes: All the charts in use must be maintained fully corrected, using the Notices to Mariners of the hydrographic office which produced them. It is not satisfactory practice to correct charts using the corrections from another hydrographic office.
Corrections should be checked, to ensure that they have been carried out neatly; in the correct colours and that the correction is comprehensible.
Corrections can usually be obtained from local agents if for any reason mailed copies are significantly delayed.
Record keeping of corrections should be reviewed and random checks made to ensure that recorded corrections to charts and other nautical publications have been made and that charts and publications in use are fully corrected and up to date.
The last Notice to Mariners on board should be dated within the previous two months.

4.22 Were the charts used for the previous voyage appropriate?

Note: The largest scale charts published should be used. The Master should have made every effort to obtain the necessary charts if the vessel is ordered to a port not covered by the chart folio system.
The voyage charts must be checked prior to departure and if any are missing, every effort must be made to obtain them locally before departure. If the largest scale charts cannot be obtained the company must be informed, as it might be possible to obtain the necessary charts en route, or to have the important charts faxed in sections. As a last resort, the port charts could be brought aboard by the pilot.

4.23 If the vessel is provided solely with paper charts, does the operator have procedures in place to prepare for the mandatory introduction of ECDIS?

Notes: The 2009 SOLAS Amendments (MSC.282(86)) mandate the carriage of ECDIS and effective 1st July 2012, new tankers >3,000gt, must be fitted with ECDIS. In the case of existing tankers >3,000gt, ECDIS must be fitted not later than the first survey on or after 1st July 2015. Operators must be aware of the fundamental changes in navigation that take place with the use of ECDIS and a programme should be in place to ensure that the transition is smooth, equipment installed and Masters and all bridge watchkeepers properly trained. Such training must be both generic and specific to the ECDIS equipment that officers will use.
ECDIS training must be incorporated into the company’s SMS for the use of ECDIS in accordance with paragraph 6.5 of the ISM Code and deck officers must be fully familiar with the operation of ECDIS prior to the first voyage after the installation of ECDIS in accordance with paragraph 6.3 of the ISM Code. The IMO SN.1/Circ. 276 - Transitioning from Paper Chart to Electronic Chart Display and Information Systems (ECDIS) Navigation provides details and guidance for compliance. The vessel must be in possession of the operator’s procedures for the ECDIS introduction.

4.24 If the vessel is equipped with an Electronic Chart Display and Information Systems (ECDIS), are the Master and deck watchkeeping officers able to produce appropriate documentation that generic and type-specific ECDIS familiarisation has been undertaken?

Notes: Each deck watchkeeper must be in possession of an ECDIS certificate of training. This Generic training must have taken place at an establishment approved by the Flag Administration, address the subjects set out in, and fully address each of the topics contained in the IMO Model Course 1.27, (The operational use of Electronic Chart Display and Information Systems (ECDIS)).
If the equipment on board is of a different type (manufacturer) to which the generic training was undertaken, then evidence of familiarisation of the actual equipment fitted on board should be provided. Record in other comments the nature of and duration of such familiarisation.

4.25 If the vessel is provided solely with an Electronic Chart Display and Information System (EDCIS) does it meet the requirements of SOLAS?

Notes: Vessels that operate solely using ECDIS must be ‘type approved’ in accordance with IMO Res. A.817(19) as amended, and use only official Electronic Navigation Charts (ENCs). A secondary means of navigation must also be provided. The secondary means may comprise:
A second ‘type approved’ ECDIS powered from the main and emergency power supply and operating independent of the main ECDIS and connected to the ship’s main power supply and to an independent GPS input. The secondary ECDIS must have the ENC chart database and voyage plan loaded before commencement of the voyage and must be operational at all times when the ship is in coastal waters, or
A stand-alone Electronic Charting System (ECS). All non-ECDIS ENC systems are classified as ECS. An ECS may use commercial or raster charts. An ECS must be independent of the main ECDIS and connected to the ship’s main and emergency power supply and to an independent position fixing system input. The ECS must meet the requirements of Res.A.819 (19) as amended, Appendix 6 (ECDIS back-up requirements). The back-up arrangements for ECDIS must have the chart database and voyage plan loaded before commencement of the voyage. In confined waters the ECS must be in operational mode, or
A full folio of paper charts that satisfies SOLAS carriage requirements, corrected to the latest available Notices to Mariners, covering the intended voyage and showing the intended voyage plan.
The type of secondary means will be decided by the vessel’s flag Administration.
Navigating officers must not become over-reliant on ECDIS. Frequent checks should be made of the ECDIS position fixing system (normally GPS) by the use of other means. Such checks should include:
Parallel indexing and use of clearing bearings;
Use of radar to check the accuracy of the charted position by comparing the location of the radar target against the charted symbol;
Visual cross bearings;
Comparison of the signal to noise ratio of the GPS system in use.
The full functionality of ECDIS cannot be achieved when operating in the raster chart display (RCDS) mode and thus the system should always be operated in ECDIS mode.
ECDIS that is not updated for the latest version of the International Hydrographic Organisation (IHO) standards may not meet the chart carriage requirements set out in SOLAS V/19.2.1.4. The list of current standards is maintained on the IHO web site www.iho.int
Data input from the gyro compass, speed log, echo sounder and other electronic equipment should be periodically monitored to ensure accuracy.

4.26 If the vessel is provided with an Electronic Chart Display and Information System (EDCIS) that uses a paper chart back-up system, are the paper charts provided, adequate for the areas in which the ship trades and are they fully corrected?

Notes: The ECDIS must utilise ENCs and all of the paper charts be fully corrected and maintained in a state of ready back-up in the case of ECDIS failure.

4.27 Are Lists of Lights, Tide Tables, Sailing Directions, the Nautical Almanac, the Annual Summary of Notices to Mariners and the Chart Catalogue the current editions and have they been maintained up to date where required?

Nautical charts and nautical publications, such as sailing directions, lists of lights, notices to mariners, tide tables and all other publications necessary for the intended voyage, shall be adequate and up to date.
(SOLAS V/27)
Note: Publications in electronic format may be accepted by certain flag Administrations.
In accordance with Admiralty recommendations corrections to Sailing Directions should be kept in a separate file, divided into each separate Sailing Direction. The publications themselves should not be corrected, only the correction index in the front of each Sailing Direction updated.

Navigation:

4.28 Has the vessel been safely navigated and in compliance with international regulations?

A ship shall use a mandatory ship’s routeing system and in accordance with the relevant provisions unless there are compelling reasons not to use a particular ships’ routeing system. Any such reason shall be recorded in the ship’s log. (SOLAS V/10.7)
Note: Charts of at least the complete previous voyage should be checked to determine that the vessel has been safely navigated. The correct use of traffic separation zones, intervals between position fixes, maintenance of a safe distance off the coast, avoidance of prohibited areas and dangerous wrecks, adherence to printed notes on the charts, etc., will provide evidence of safe navigation.
In accordance with IMO Ship's Routeing Section B II/13-1 and Section G II/1-1 to 4:
Tankers of 10,000 gt and upwards, carrying oils as defined under Annex 1;
Ships of 5,000 gt and upwards, carrying noxious liquid substances assessed as Categories X or Y of Annex 2;
Ships of 10,000 gt and upwards, carrying noxious liquid substances assessed as Category Z or OS of Annex 2;
Ships of 10,000 gt and upwards, carrying liquefied gases in bulk:
must use the "Mandatory route for tankers from North Hinder to the German Bight and vice versa.” The charts affected are BA1632 and BA1633.

4.29 Is the echo sounder recorder marked with a reference date and time on each occasion it is switched on?

Note: The echo sounder recorder should be switched on prior to each approach to shallow water and port entry and prior to departure and remain in operation while in shallow waters. The date and time of switching on should be marked on the recorder chart. In addition, the date and time of passing significant land or seamarks should be marked on the recorder. Many modern electronic echo sounders have an in-built 24-hour memory which can be recalled. If an electronic memory is not provided, the echo sounder should be provided with a printed record. Where an electronic display history is provided to record trending and a VDR to record times, a ‘Y’ response should be made, together with a short explanation in Other comments.

4.30 Was a comprehensive passage plan available for the previous voyage and did it cover the full voyage from berth to berth?

Prior to proceeding to sea, the Master shall ensure that the intended voyage has been planned using appropriate charts and publications for the area concerned. (SOLAS V/34 and IMO Res. A.893)
Notes: The passage plan should be completed by the navigating officer and verified and approved by the Master. It should be comprehensive, contain full details of the voyage, and be easy to interpret.
The passage plan should be written on each applicable chart, which may be supported by a conning notebook, or equivalent. Excessive information in the navigational areas of a chart must be avoided by recording the information away from the track and drawing attention to it by a line or reference letter.
The following should be marked on the chart, where it enhances safe navigation:
Parallel indexing (not from floating objects unless they have been first checked for position);
Chart changes;
Methods and frequency of position fixing;
Prominent navigation and radar marks;
No-go areas (the excessive marking of no-go areas should be discouraged – see below);
Landfall targets and lights;
Clearing lines and bearings;
Transits, heading marks and leading lines;
Significant tides or current;
Safe speed and necessary speed alterations;
Changes in machinery status;
Minimum under keel clearance;
Positions where the echo sounder should be activated;
Crossing and high density traffic areas;
Safe distance off;
Anchor clearance;
Contingency plans;
Abort positions;
VTS and reporting points, etc.
The air draft should be marked where necessary.
In the event that ECDIS is the primary means of navigation, the above should be taken into account.
Charted passage planning information should not obscure printed details, nor should the information on charts be obliterated by the use of highlight or felt-tip pen, red pencil, etc.
No-go areas should be highlighted, but should be reserved for those areas where the attention of the navigator needs to be drawn to a danger such as shallow water or a wreck close to the course line. Extensive use of no-go areas should be discouraged. No-go areas vary with change of draft and tide and will therefore also vary with the time of passage. They should not therefore be permanently marked.
All courses previous to the last voyage should have been erased. Course lines must not be marked in ink, although it is acceptable to plot alter course positions in ink where these are frequently in use.
Marine environmental protection measures, where action is required by the vessel with respect to pollution prevention issues, should be identified. Such positions would include, but not be limited to, entry into:
An Annex VI ECA Area. The position would have to allow for the time required to change over from high to low sulphur fuel, which varies from vessel to vessel, in order that the vessel arrived in the ECA Area on low sulphur fuel;
An Annex V Garbage Special Area where the requirements for the disposal of garbage become more stringent;
Reaching a position where ballast water exchange should be commenced.

4.31 Was position fixing satisfactory throughout the previous voyage and the frequency of plotted fixes in accordance with the passage plan?

Good navigational practice demands that the officer of the watch:
Understands the capabilities and limitations of the navigational aids and systems being used and continually monitors their performance;
Uses the echo sounder to monitor changes in water depth;
Uses dead reckoning techniques to check position fixes;
Cross-checks position-fixes using independent sources of information: this is particularly important when electronic position-fixing systems, such as GPS are used as the primary means of fixing the position of the ship;
Uses visual navigation aids to support electronic position-fixing methods, i.e. landmarks in coastal areas and celestial navigation in open waters;
Does not become over reliant on automated navigational equipment, including electronic chart systems, thereby failing to make proper navigational use of visual information;
Plots historical ship track forward to identify the projected/anticipated position. (BPG 3.3.1.2)
Notes: At least two methods of position fixing should be charted, where possible. Visual and radar position fixing and monitoring techniques should be used whenever possible. GPS derived positions should always be verified by alternative methods. The frequency of position fixing should be such that the vessel cannot run into danger during the interval between fixes.

4.32 Was radar parallel indexing used to monitor the position of the vessel?

Note: Fixed points such as lighthouses and headlands should always be used in preference to floating objects, which should be carefully checked for position before being used for parallel indexing.

4.33 During pilotage, was the position of the vessel adequately monitored?

The safe progress of the ship as planned should be monitored closely at all times. This will also include track monitoring and regular fixing of the position of the ship, particularly after each course alteration, and monitoring underkeel clearance.
Verbal orders from the pilot also need to be checked to confirm that they have been carried out correctly. This will include monitoring both the rudder angle and rpm indicators when helm and engine orders are given.
(BPG 3.3.3.4)

4.34 Has the GPS been adjusted to the correct datum?

Notes: GPS is referenced to WGS84 and it is recommended that the GPS receiver is maintained referenced to that datum. Hydrographic offices are gradually changing all charts to WGS84 and these charts include the legend ‘WGS84 positions can be plotted directly on this chart’. Some charts contain information on latitude and longitude shift values that should be applied to GPS positions before they are charted. Occasionally these can be significant, and many charts still show the land or obstructions in the wrong position when compared with GPS data.
Accuracy of positions using GPS can be affected, amongst other things, by differences in datums, solar activity and powerful radar or radio transmissions, including deliberate jamming.
Discrepancies in charted positions of obstructions can also introduce significant differences between GPS derived positions and more traditional methods.
Annual Notice to Mariners no. 19 recommends that the GPS is kept referenced to WGS84 Datum and that position shift values provided on the chart are applied before plotting a position.

4.35 Is there an adequate system for dealing with navigation warnings and are they being charted?

Notes: A system should be in place for monitoring navigational warnings appropriate to the ship’s trading area and for ensuring relevant navigational warnings are brought to the attention of the watchkeeping officers.
Such a system must include an adequate, up to date filing system for Temporary and Preliminary Notices, Navarea and Navtex warnings. Relevant warnings must be charted and the chart they have been entered on must be recorded on the warning notice in order that the warning can be removed when the notice is cancelled.
Navtex warnings should be monitored by the officer on watch at the time of receipt. He should ensure that the system is maintained by initialling the warnings received to show that they have been checked as to whether they are relevant to the current voyage. Those which are relevant should be charted.

Navigation Equipment:

4.36 Is navigation equipment appropriate for the size of the vessel and in good order?

Note: Regardless of whether a vessel is required by legislation to carry specific navigational equipment, if equipment is fitted then it should be operational. Such equipment may be a course recorder, off-course alarm, and electronic chart display or engine order logger/printer. Random checks should be made to ensure that equipment is operational.

4.36 Is navigation equipment appropriate for the size of the vessel and in good order?

Note: Regardless of whether a vessel is required by legislation to carry specific navigational equipment, if equipment is fitted then it should be operational. Such equipment may be a course recorder, off-course alarm, and electronic chart display or engine order logger/printer. Random checks should be made to ensure that equipment is operational.

The following applies to all vessels constructed (i.e. keel laid) before 1st July 2002. All ships, irrespective of size:

4.36.1 A receiver for a global navigation satellite system or terrestrial navigation radio navigation system.

Or other means, suitable for use at all times throughout the intended voyage to establish and update the ship’s position by automatic means. (SOLAS V/19.2.1.6)

4.36.2 A Navtex receiver.

Every ship shall be provided with a receiver capable of receiving international NAVTEX service broadcasts if the ship is engaged on voyages in any area in which an international NAVTEX service is provided. (SOLAS IV/7.1.4)
Notes: The Navtex system broadcasts coastal warnings which cover the area from the fairway buoy out to about 250 miles from the transmitter, or occasionally up to 400 miles in unusual propagational conditions.
Each Navtex message begins with ZCZC, followed by a space and four characters. The first, B1, identifies the station, the second, B2, the subject (i.e. navigation warning, weather forecast, gale warning, distress alert, etc.) and the third and fourth the consecutive number of the message from that station.
The Navtex should be programmed to the stations for the area in which the vessel is sailing and to the type of B2 messages which are required to be received. Message types A, B and D are mandatory, but it is recommended that the receiver be programmed to receive most types.

4.36.3 A whistle, bell and gong.

A whistle and bell for vessels of 12 metres or more in length and a gong for vessels of 100 metres or more in length. (Colregs D/33.a)

4.36.4 Shapes.

Three balls, a cylinder and a diamond shape should be carried. (Colregs)

All ships of 150 gt and upwards:

4.36.5 A properly adjusted standard magnetic compass.

A spare magnetic compass, interchangeable with the standard magnetic compass, shall be carried unless a steering compass or gyro compass is fitted.
The magnetic compass shall be properly adjusted and its table or curve of residual deviations shall be available at all times.

4.36.6 A steering magnetic compass.

Unless heading information provided by the standard compass above is made available and is clearly readable by the helmsman at the main steering position.
Spare magnetic compasses should be stored upside down to avoid wear of the needle bearing.

4.36.7 Means for taking bearings.

As nearly as practicable over an arc of the horizon of 3600.

4.36.8 A spare magnetic compass.

This should be interchangeable with the standard compass.
A spare magnetic compass is not required if a steering compass or a gyro compass is fitted.

4.36.9 A telephone.

Ships with emergency steering positions shall at least be provided with a telephone or other means of communication for relaying heading information.

4.36.10 A daylight signalling lamp.

All ships of over 150 gt, when engaged on international voyages, shall have on board an efficient daylight signalling lamp which shall not be solely dependent on the ship’s main source of electrical power. (SOLAS 1974 V/11)

All ships of 300 gt and upwards on international voyages:

4.36.11 An automatic identification system (AIS).

Ships fitted with AIS shall maintain AIS in operation at all times except where international agreements, rules or standards provide for the protection of navigational information.
(SOLAS 2004 V/19.2.4.7)
AIS is required to be operating while a ship is underway and while at anchor. Some port authorities may request that the AIS is kept on when a ship is alongside. The AIS operates on a VHF frequency and transmits and receives information automatically, and the output power ranges between 2 watts and 12.5 watts. Automatic polling by another station (e.g. by port authority equipment or another ship) could cause equipment to transmit at the higher (12.5 watt) level, even when it is set to low power (2 watts).
When alongside a terminal or port area where hydrocarbon gases may be present, the AIS should either be switched off or the aerial isolated and the AIS given a dummy load. Isolating the aerial preserves manually input data that may be lost if the AIS was switched off. If necessary, the port authority should be informed.
When alongside terminal or port areas where no hydrocarbon gases are likely to be present, and if the unit has the facility, the AIS should be switched to low power. If the AIS is switched off or isolated whilst alongside, it must be reactivated upon leaving the berth. The use of AIS equipment may affect the security of the ship or the terminal at which it is berthed. In such circumstances, the use of AIS may be determined by the port authority, depending on the security level within the port. (ISGOTT 4.8.4)
Where either or both ships involved in STS operations are required to have an AIS operating while under way or at anchor, the AIS equipment should remain in use at all times including during STS operations. The AIS equipment used for the AIS broadcasts need not be set to low power output during STS operations. (STS Transfer Guide Petroleum 3.5.5.4)
Notes: If the AIS is not interfaced with either a radar or electronic chart display, it should be positioned adjacent to one of them. Certain manufacturers have modified their AIS equipment to provide a ‘Tanker Mode’ that permits selection of a 1W output.

4.36.12 A VHF radio.

All ships of 300 gt and upwards shall be provided with a VHF installation capable of transmitting and receiving on Channels 6, 13, 16 and 70 (DSC). It shall be possible to initiate the transmission of distress alerts on channel 70 from the position from which the ship is normally navigated.

4.26.12a All ships of 300 gt and upwards shall be fitted with a system to automatically transmit:

The identity of the ship;
The position of the ship (in latitude and longitude); and
The date and time of the position provided.
Ships constructed on or after 31st December 2008. For ships constructed before 31st December 2008, not later than the first radio survey after that date for ships certified for operation in sea Areas A1, A2 and A3, or not later than the first radio survey after 1st July 2009 for ships operating in Sea Area A4.
Ships operating solely in Sea Area A1 and fitted with AIS need not comply with this regulation. (SOLAS V/19-1)

All ships of 500 gt and upwards:

4.36.13 A gyro compass and repeaters.

A gyro compass shall be fitted on ships of 500 gt and upwards constructed on or after 1st September 1984 and on ships of 1,600 gt and upwards on international voyages.
Ships of 1,600 gt and upwards shall be provided with a gyro repeater or repeaters suitably placed for taking bearings as nearly as practicable over the arc of the horizon of 3600.
All ships shall have a gyro-compass, or other means, to determine and display their heading by ship borne non-magnetic means, being clearly readable by the helmsman at the main steering position.

4.36.14 Visual compass readings to the emergency steering position.

Arrangements shall be provided for ships constructed on or after 1st February 1992.

4.36.15 A radar installation.

A radar capable of being operated in the 9 GHz (3 cm, ‘X’ band) shall be installed on ships of 500 gt and upwards constructed on or after 1st September 1984 and on ships of 1,600 gt and upwards constructed before 1st September 1984.
However, ships of 10,000 gt and upwards shall be fitted with 2 radars, each being capable of being operated independently of the other and one of which must be capable of operating in the 9 GHz (3 cm, ‘X’ band).

4.36.16 Radar plotting equipment.

Facilities for plotting radar readings shall be provided on the navigation bridge of ships fitted with radars.
In ships of 1,600 gt and upwards constructed after 1st September 1984 the plotting facilities shall be at least as effective as a reflection plotter.

4.36.17 An echo sounder.

When engaged on international voyages, ships of 500 gt and upwards constructed on or after 25th May 1980 and ships of 1,600 gt and upwards constructed before 25th May 1980 shall be fitted with an echo sounder.
Performance of the echo sounder should be tested on all ranges and scales to verify recordings against depths shown on the chart.

4.36.18 A speed and distance indicator.

When engaged on international voyages ships of 500 gt and upwards constructed on or after 1st September 1984 shall be fitted with a device to indicate speed and distance.

4.36.19 Rudder angle, RPM, variable pitch and bow/stern thruster indicators.

Ships of 1,600 gt and upwards constructed before 1st September 1984 and all ships of 500 gt and upwards constructed on or after 1st September 1984 shall be fitted with indicators showing the rudder angle, the rate of revolution of each propeller and in addition, where fitted with variable pitch propellers or lateral thrust propellers, the pitch and operational mode of such propellers. All these indicators shall be readable from the conning position.

All tankers of 3,000 gt and upwards:

- A voyage data recorder.
VDR’s shall be subjected to an annual performance test. The test shall be conducted by an approved testing or servicing facility. A copy of the certificate of compliance issued by the testing facility, stating the date of compliance and the applicable performance standards, shall be retained on board the ship. (SOLAS V/18.8)
To assist in casualty investigations, cargo ships, when engaged on international voyages, shall be fitted with a VDR which may be a simplified voyage data recorder (S-VDR)* as follows: In the case of cargo ships of 3,000 gross tonnage and upwards but less than 20,000 gross tonnage constructed before 1st July 2002, at the first scheduled dry docking after 1st July 2007 but not later than 1st July 2010.
Administrations may exempt cargo ships from the application of the requirements of subparagraphs .1 and .2 when such ships will be taken permanently out of service within two years after the implementation date specified in subparagraphs .1 and .2 above. (SOLAS V/20.1)
VDR’s typically only retain information for 12 hours, whereafter it is overwritten and can no longer be retrieved. Deck officers should know how to save data in order that it can be retrieved after an incident.
VDR capsules may be either fixed or fitted with a float-free arrangement, be of a highly visible colour, and be fitted with an appropriate device to aid location. (MSC163 (78) 5.1.3.1) VDR’s typically only retain information for 12 hours, whereafter it is overwritten and can no longer be retrieved. Deck officers should know how to save data in order that it can be retrieved after an incident.
VDR capsules may be either fixed or fitted with a float-free arrangement, be of a highly visible colour, and be fitted with an appropriate device to aid location. (MSC163 (78) 5.1.3.1)

All ships of 10,000 gt and upwards:

4.36.20 Radar installations.

Two radar installations shall be provided, each capable of operating independently.
At least one of the installations shall operate in the 9 GHz (3 cm, ‘X’ band).

4.36.21 An ARPA.

Tankers of 10,000 gt and upwards shall be fitted with an automatic radar plotting aid.
Vessels required to be fitted with an ARPA shall be equipped with a device to indicate speed and distance through the water (i.e. an electromagnetic or pitot log.) If the speed through the water log is not operational, the speed of the vessel must be entered manually.

All ships of 100,000 gt and upwards:

4.36.22 A rate of turn indicator.

Required for vessels of 100,000 gt and upwards constructed after 1st September 1984.

The following applies to all vessels constructed (i.e. keel laid) after 1st July 2002. (SOLAS 2004 V/19) All ships, irrespective of size:

4.36.23 A receiver for a global satellite navigation system or terrestrial navigation radio navigation system.

Or other means, suitable for use at all times throughout the intended voyage to establish and update the ship’s position by automatic means.

4.36.24 A Navtex receiver.

Every ship shall be provided with a receiver capable of receiving international NAVTEX service broadcasts if the ship is engaged on voyages in any area in which an international NAVTEX service is provided. (SOLAS IV/7.1.4)
Notes: The Navtex system broadcasts coastal warnings which cover the area from the fairway buoy out to 250 miles from the transmitter, or occasionally up to 400 miles in unusual propagational conditions.
Each Navtex message begins with ZCZC, followed by a space and four characters. The first, B1, identifies the station, the second, B2, the subject (i.e. navigation warning, weather forecast, gale warning, distress alert, etc.) and the third and fourth the consecutive number of the message from that station.
The Navtex should be programmed to the stations for the area in which the vessel is sailing and to the type of B2 messages which are required to be received. Message types A, B and D are mandatory, but it is recommended that the receiver be programmed to receive most types.

4.36.25 A whistle, bell and gong.

A whistle and bell for vessels of 12 metres or more in length and a gong for vessels of 100 metres or more in length. (Colregs D/33.a)

4.36.26 Shapes.

Three balls, one cylinder and one diamond shape should be carried. (Colregs)

4.36.27 A properly adjusted magnetic compass.

Or other means independent of any power supply, to determine the ship’s heading and display the reading at the main steering position.

4.36.28 A pelorus or compass bearing device.

Or other means, independent of any power supply, to take bearings over an arc of the horizon of 3600.

4.36.29 Means of correcting heading and bearings to true at all times.

4.36.30 A sound reception system.

Or other means, when the bridge is totally enclosed, to enable the officer in charge of the watch to hear sound signals and determine the direction.

4.36.31 A telephone.

Or other means, to communicate heading information to the emergency steering position.

All ships of 150 gt and upwards:

4.36.32 A spare magnetic compass.

Or other means, interchangeable with the magnetic compass in 4.26.27.

4.36.33 A daylight signalling lamp.

All ships of 150 gt and upwards shall be fitted with a daylight signalling lamp, or other means, to communicate by light during day and night using an energy source of electrical power not solely dependent on the ship’s power supply.

SAll ships of 300 gt and upwards:

4.36.34 An echo sounding device.

4.36.35 A 9 GHz (3 cm ‘X’ band) radar.

4.36.36 An electronic plotting aid.

To plot electronically the range and bearing of targets to determine collision risk.

4.36.37 A speed and distance measuring device.

To indicate speed and distance through the water. If the device is not operational, speed input to the ARPA, where fitted, must be manual.

4.36.38 A properly adjusted transmitting heading device.

Or other means, to transmit heading information for input into the 9 GHz radar, the plotting aid and the speed and distance-measuring device.

4.36.39 A VHF radio.

All ships of 300 gt and upwards shall be provided with a VHF installation capable of transmitting and receiving on Channels 6, 13, 16 and 70 (DSC). It shall be possible to initiate the transmission of distress alerts on channel 70 from the position from which the ship is normally navigated.

SAll ships of 300 gt and upwards on international voyages:

4.36.40 An automatic identification system (AIS).

Ships fitted with AIS shall maintain AIS in operation at all times except where international agreements, rules or standards provide for the protection of navigational information.
(SOLAS V/19.2.4.7)
Notes: If the AIS is not interfaced with either a radar or electronic chart display, it should be positioned adjacent to one of them. See the guidance to Q4.26.11.

All ships of 500 gt and over:

4.36.41 A gyro compass.

Or other means, to determine and display the heading by ship borne non-magnetic means, being clearly readable by the helmsman at the main steering position. These means shall also transmit heading information for input to the electronic plotting aid, speed and distance measuring device and the automatic tracking aid. (SOLAS V/19.2.5)

4.36.42 A gyro compass heading repeater.

To supply heading information at the emergency steering position, if provided.

4.36.43 A gyro compass bearing repeater.

To take bearings over an arc of the horizon of 3600.

4.36.44 Rudder, propeller, thrust, pitch and operational mode indicators.

All to be readable from the conning position.

4.36.45 An automatic tracking aid.

To plot automatically the range and bearing of other targets to determine collision risk.

All ships of 3,000 gt and upwards:

4.36.46 A 3 GHz (10 cm, ‘X’ band) radar.

Or a second 9 GHz (3 cm, ‘X’ band) radar where considered appropriate by the Administration.

4.36.47 A second automatic tracking aid.

Functionally independent of the first automatic aid.

4.36.48 A voyage data recorder (VDR)

VDR's shall be subjected to an annual performance test. The test shall be conducted by an approved testing or servicing facility. A copy of the certificate of compliance issued by the testing facility, stating the date of compliance and the applicable performance standards, shall be retained on board the ship. (SOLAS V/18.8)
To assist in casualty investigations, cargo ships, when engaged on international voyages, shall be fitted with a VDR which may be a simplified voyage data recorder (S-VDR) as follows:
.1 in the case of cargo ships of 20,000 gross tonnage and upwards constructed before 1st July 2002, at the first scheduled dry-docking after 1st July 2006 but not later than 1st July 2009;
.2 in the case of cargo ships of 3,000 gross tonnage and upwards but less than 20,000 gross tonnage constructed before 1st July 2002, at the first scheduled dry-docking after 1st July 2007 but not later than 1st July 2010;
.3 Administrations may exempt cargo ships from the application of the requirements of subparagraphs .1 and .2 when such ships will be taken permanently out of service within two years after the implementation date specified in subparagraphs .1 and .2 above.
(SOLAS V/20.1)
VDR’s typically only retain information for 12 hours, whereafter it is overwritten and can no longer be retrieved. Deck officers should know how to save data in order that it can be retrieved after an incident.
VDR capsules may be either fixed or fitted with a float-free arrangement, be of a highly visible colour, and be fitted with an appropriate device to aid location. (MSC163 (78) 5.1.3.1)

All ships of 10,000 gt and upwards:

4.36.49 An ARPA, equipped with speed through the water input.

An ARPA, or other means, to plot automatically the range and bearing of at least 20 other targets, connected to a device to indicate speed and distance through the water, to determine collision risks and simulate a trial manoeuvre.

4.36.50 A heading or track control system.

To automatically control and keep to a heading and/or straight track.

All ships of 50,000 gt and upwards:

4.36.51 A rate of turn indicator.

Or other means to determine and display the rate of turn.

4.36.52 A speed and distance measuring device.

From 1st July 2002 new ships are to be equipped with a device to indicate speed and distance over the ground in the forward and athwartships direction.

Chronometers: There is no SOLAS requirement for a vessel to carry or maintain a chronometer, although some Administrations might still have their own regulatory requirement to fit one but do not insist on it. One of the functions of the GPS system is to provide an accurate time signal.
ECDIS: In July 2008 the IMO agreed to implement the mandatory carriage of ECDIS; this was approved by the Maritime Safety Committee in December 2008. A comprehensive phase-in schedule will begin on 1st July 2012 with the mandatory carriage of ECDIS for newbuildings of passenger ships of 500 gt and above and for tankers of 3,000 gt and above. Mandatory carriage for existing ships will be phased in from 1st July 2014 to 1st July 2018.

4.37 Are navigation lights in good order?

Note: Primary and secondary systems should be in good order, and there should be a procedure to check the navigation light failure alarm.

Chapter 5. Safety Management

5.1 Has a Safety Officer been designated and trained to undertake this role?

Note: One of the primary functions of the Safety Officer, who preferably should be an experienced seafarer, is to inspect all areas of the vessel on a regular basis for safety compliance and to report any deficiencies noted. The purpose is to raise awareness, prevent accidents and to identify regular occurrences that might require the operator’s intervention on a fleet-wide basis. The function of the Safety Officer may not involve equipment maintenance, although it does include identifying equipment deficiencies. Evidence that the Safety Officer has undertaken an appropriate Safety Officer training course should be provided. Safety Officer training should follow the STCW Code Tables A-II/2 and A-III/2 and the IMO Model Course 3.11. This can also include in-house or formal shore based training. Training records must match the job description for the Safety Officer within the Safety Management System.

5.2 Are the ship’s officers familiar with the operation of fire fighting, life saving and other emergency equipment?

Note: Ship’s officers should be familiar with the operation of the fixed fire fighting systems, the main and emergency fire pumps, the emergency steering gear, the donning and use of breathing apparatus and oxygen resuscitation equipment.

5.3 Is personal protective equipment such as boiler suits, safety footwear, eye and ear protection, safety harnesses and chemical protective equipment etc. provided and as required, being worn?

Note: Documented guidance relating to the use of this equipment should be provided.

5.4 Are all hand torches approved for use in gas-hazardous areas?

Only torches that have been approved by a competent authority for use in flammable atmospheres must be used on board tankers. (ISGOTT 4.3.4)
Note: This includes torches in use on deck, in the engine room and those supplied for use with the firemen’s outfits.

5.5 Are regular safety meetings held, are the minutes recorded and does the operator provide shore management responses?

Note: Safety Committee Meetings are intended to permit discussion among the vessel’s officers and ratings where these relate to safety. Safety meetings should not be used for the purposes of instruction or training.

5.6 Is there a procedure for the reporting, investigation and close-out of accidents, incidents, non-conformities and near misses?

Note: Port state inspection deficiencies should be recorded as non-conformities.

5.7 Is a completed ISGOTT Ship/Shore Safety Check List (SSSCL) available and are its provisions being complied with?

Any non-compliance should be recorded as an Observation.
Notes: The ISGOTT SSSCL may be used or alternatively a checklist provided by the terminal or the operator which is to an equivalent standard.
The code letter ‘A’ (Agreement) against an item in the checklist indicates that agreement of a procedure should be made in the ‘Remarks’ column of the Check-List or communicated in some other mutually acceptable form. The code letter ‘P’ (Permission) indicates that in the case of a negative answer, operations should not be conducted without written permission from the appropriate authority. The code letter ‘R’ (Re-check) indicates items that are to be re-checked at agreed intervals by both parties, at periods stated in the declaration. The SSSCL should confirm that these items are being re-checked at the agreed intervals.

5.8 Are smoking regulations posted and being adhered to and are smoke rooms adequately identified?

The designated smoking areas should be agreed between the responsible officer and the Terminal Representative before operations start. The responsible officer should ensure that all persons on board the tanker are informed of the selected places for smoking and that suitable notices, in addition to the tanker’s permanent notices, are posted. (ISGOTT 4.2.2.3)
Certain criteria should be met in the selection of smoking places whenever petroleum cargoes are being handled or when ballasting into non-gas free cargo tanks, purging with inert gas, gas freeing or tank cleaning operations are taking place.
The criteria are:
Smoking places should be confined to locations within the accommodation;
Smoking places should not have doors or ports that open directly on to open decks;
Account should be taken of conditions that may suggest danger, such as an indication of unusually high petroleum gas concentrations, particularly in the absence of wind, and when there are operations on adjacent tankers or on the jetty berth.
In the designated smoking places, all ports should be kept closed and doors into passageways should be kept closed except when in use. (ISGOTT 4.2.2.3)
While the tanker is moored at the terminal, even when no operations are in progress, smoking can only be permitted in designated smoking places or, after there has been prior agreement in writing between the Responsible Officer and the Terminal Representative, in any other closed accommodation. (ISGOTT 4.2.2.3)
When stern loading/discharge connections are being used, particular care must be taken to ensure that no smoking is allowed in any accommodation or space, the door or ports of which open onto the deck where the stern loading/discharge manifold is located. (ISGOTT 4.2.2.3)
Safety matches or fixed (car-type) electrical cigarette lighters should be provided in approved smoking locations. All matches used on board tankers should be of the safety type. The use of matches and cigarette lighters outside the accommodation should be prohibited, except in places where smoking is permitted. Matches should not be carried on the tank deck or in any other place where petroleum gas may be encountered.
The use of all mechanical lighters and portable lighters with electrical ignition sources should be prohibited onboard tankers.
Disposable lighters present a significant risk as an uncontrolled ignition source. The unprotected nature of their spark producing mechanism allows them to be easily activated accidentally.
The carriage of matches and lighters through terminals should be prohibited. Severe penalties may be levied under local regulations for non-compliance. (ISGOTT 4.2.2.4)
Ashtrays in public rooms should be of a self-extinguishing type.

5.9 Are external doors, ports and windows kept closed in port?

A tanker’s accommodation and machinery spaces contain equipment that is not suitable for use in flammable atmospheres and it is therefore important that petroleum gas is kept out of these spaces.
All external doors, ports and similar openings should be closed when cargo operations are being conducted.
If external doors have to be opened for access, they should be closed immediately after use. Where practical, a single door should be used for working access in port. Doors that must be kept closed should be clearly marked.
Allowance must be made to permit doors and openings to be open if the vessel is storing provided there is no possibility of gas entering the accommodation and that doors do not remain open for longer than is necessary.
Doors should not normally be locked in port. However, where there are security concerns, measures may need to be employed to prevent unauthorised access while at the same time ensuring that there is a means of escape for the personnel inside.
Although discomfort may be caused to personnel in accommodation that is completely closed during conditions of high temperatures and humidity, this discomfort should be accepted in the interests of safety.
(ISGOTT 24.1)
Engine room vents may be open. However, consideration should be given to closing them where such action would not adversely affect the safe operation of the engine room spaces served.
(ISGOTT SSSCL Guidelines No.17)

5.10 Is the accommodation space atmosphere being maintained at a higher pressure than that of the ambient air?

Air conditioning intakes must be set to ensure that the atmospheric pressure inside the accommodation is always greater than that of the external atmosphere. Air conditioning systems must not be set to 100% recirculation, as this will cause the pressure of the internal atmosphere to fall to less than that of the external atmosphere, due to extraction fans operating in sanitary spaces and galleys. (ISGOTT 4.1)

5.11 Is all loose gear on deck, in stores and in internal spaces properly secured?

Drills, Training and Familiarisation:
Note: In accordance with the summarised SMS requirements accompanying question 2.2, drills involving relevant personnel should be carried out at regular intervals taking into account the ship type, personnel changes and any other relevant circumstances. Each drill should be as realistic as circumstances allow and there should be a review upon completion. Any action required to improve effectiveness should be noted and acted upon. Use of electronic interactive training aids can be beneficial, provided their use is structured and progress of individuals is monitored.

5.12 Is there a procedure for familiarisation for new personnel?

On-board training in the use of the ship’s life-saving appliances, including survival craft equipment and in the use of the ship’s fire extinguishing appliances shall be given as soon as possible but not later than two weeks after a crew member (first) joins a ship. (SOLAS III/19.4.1)

5.13 Are drills for emergency procedures being carried out?

Note: Emergency procedures should at least include collision, grounding, flooding, heavy weather damage, structural failure, fire (on deck and in cargo tanks, the engine room, pump room and accommodation), explosion, gas or toxic vapour release, critical machinery failure, rescue from enclosed spaces, serious injury, emergency towing equipment and helicopter operations.

5.14 Are lifeboat and fire drills regularly held?

Every crew member shall participate in at least one abandon ship drill and one fire drill every month. The drills of the crew shall take place within 24 hours of the ship leaving a port if more than 25% of the crew have not participated in abandon ship and fire drills on board that particular ship in the previous month.
(SOLAS III/19.3.2)
Except as provided in paragraphs 3.3.4 and 3.3.5, each lifeboat shall be launched, and manoeuvred in the water by its assigned operating crew, at least once every three months during an abandon ship drill.
(SOLAS III/19.3.3.3)
In the case of a lifeboat arranged for free-fall launching, at least once every three months during an abandon ship drill, the crew shall board the lifeboat, properly secure themselves in their seats and commence launch procedures up to, but not including, the actual release of the lifeboat (i.e., the release hook shall not be released). The lifeboat shall then either be free-fall launched with only the required operating crew on board, or lowered into the water by means of the secondary means of launching with or without the operating crew on board. In both cases, the lifeboat shall thereafter be manoeuvred in the water by the operating crew. At intervals of not more than six months, the lifeboat shall either be launched by free fall with only the operating crew on board, or simulated launching shall be carried out in accordance with the guidelines developed by the Organisation (See MSC.1/Circ. 1206/Rev.1). (SOLAS III/19.3.3.4)
Fire drills should be planned in such a way that due consideration is given to regular practice in the various emergencies that may occur depending on the type of ship and the cargo. (SOLAS III/19.3.4.1)
Crew members shall be trained to be familiar with the arrangements of the ship as well as the location and operation of any fire-fighting systems and appliances that they may be called upon to use.
(SOLAS 2004 II-2/15.2.2.1)
Each fire drill shall include:
Reporting to stations and preparing for the duties described in the muster list;
Starting a fire pump, using at least the two required jets of water to show that the system is in proper working order;
Checking of fireman’s outfit and other personal rescue equipment;
Checking of relevant communication equipment;
Checking the operation of watertight doors, fire doors, fire dampers and main inlets and outlets of ventilating systems in the drill area; and,
Checking the necessary arrangements for subsequent abandoning of the ship. (SOLAS III/19.3.4.2)

5.15 Is regular training in the use of life-saving equipment being undertaken?

Instructions in the use of the ship’s fire extinguishing appliances, life-saving appliances and in survival at sea shall be given at the same interval as the drills. Individual instruction may cover different parts of the ship’s life-saving and fire-extinguishing appliances, but all shall be covered within any period of two months.
(SOLAS III/19.4.1)
Every crew member shall be given instructions which shall include but not necessarily be limited to:
Operation and use of the ship’s inflatable liferafts;
Problems of hypothermia, first-aid treatment for hypothermia and other appropriate first-aid procedures;
Special instructions necessary for use of the ship’s life-saving appliances in severe weather and severe sea conditions; and
Operation and use of fire-extinguishing appliances. (SOLAS III/19.4.2)
As far as is reasonable and practicable, rescue boats other than lifeboats which are also rescue boats, shall be launched each month with their assigned crew aboard and manoeuvred in the water. In all cases this requirement shall be complied with at least every three months. (SOLAS III/19.3.3.6)
On board training in the use of davit-launched liferafts shall take place at intervals of not more than four months on every ship fitted with such appliances. (SOLAS III/19.4.3)

5.16 Are pollution clean-up drills regularly held to determine that the shipboard pollution plan is up-to-date and efficient and are there records?

Notes: Drills in accordance with the requirements of the SOPEP or SMPEP should be held at regular intervals.
On vessels carrying noxious liquids, drills should also be regularly carried out in dealing with chemical spills.

Ship Security:

Notes: The International Ship and Port Facility Security Code came into force on 1st July 2004.
Inspectors should not request to sight sensitive material, but confirm only with the Master, that procedures or records are available or maintained.

5.17 Are ship security records related to port calls being maintained?

The ship shall keep records for the last ten calls at port facilities. (SOLAS XI-2/9.2.3)
Note: The required detail of the records is considerable and is contained in SOLAS XI-2/9.2.1.

5.18 Are ship security records related to the ship security plan being maintained?

Records should include:
Training, drills and exercises;
Security threats and security incidents;
Breaches of security;
Changes in security level;
Communications relating to the direct security of the ship such as specific threats to the ship or to port facilities the ship is, or has been, in;
Internal audits and reviews of security activities;
Periodic review of the ship security plan;
Implementation of any amendments to the plan;
Maintenance, calibration and testing of any security equipment provided on board, including testing of the ship security alert system. (ISPS Code Part A/10.1)

5.19 Has the operator furnished the Master with the information required by the ISPS Code?

The operator should ensure that the Master has available on board, at all times, information which can establish:
Who is responsible for appointing the members of the crew or other persons currently employed or engaged on board the ship;
Who is responsible for deciding the employment of the ship; and,
In cases where the ship is employed under the terms of charter party(ies), who are the parties to such charter party(ies). (SOLAS XI-2/5)
The information should reflect the condition as of 1st July 2004 and the operator is obliged to update and keep this information current as and when changes occur. (ISPS Code Part B 6.2 and 6.4)

5.20 Has a ship Security Officer been designated?

The duties and responsibilities of the ship Security Officer shall include, but are not limited to:
Undertaking regular security inspections of the ship to ensure that appropriate security measures are maintained;
Maintaining and supervising the implementation of the ship security plan, including any amendments to the plan;
Co-ordinating the security aspects of the handling of cargo and ship’s stores with other shipboard personnel and with the relevant port facility security officers;
Proposing modifications to the ship security plan;
Reporting to the company security officer any deficiencies and non-conformities identified during internal audits, periodic reviews, security inspections and verifications of compliance and implementing any corrective actions;
Enhancing security awareness and vigilance on board;
Ensuring that adequate training has been provided to shipboard personnel, as appropriate;
Reporting all security incidents;
Co-ordinating implementation of the ship security plan with the company security officer (CSO) and the relevant port facility security officer; and
Ensuring that security equipment, if any, is properly operated, tested, calibrated and maintained.
(ISPS Code Part A/12.2)

5.21 Has the ship security officer received adequate training?

Note: The suggested training is detailed in the ISPS Code Part B/13.1 and 2 and includes adequate knowledge of the ship and of the ship security plan and related procedures.

5.22 Is an adequate deck watch being maintained to prevent unauthorised access?

Note: The deck watch should ensure that access to the ship is denied to all unauthorised persons.

5.23 Has a gangway notice been posted, at the shore end of the gangway where possible?

Note: The notice should at least state that:
Unauthorised persons are not allowed to board;
Visitors are required to show identification;
Mobile phones and other electronic equipment must be switched off;
Smoking and naked lights are prohibited;
Lighters and matches are prohibited to be carried on board.

Enclosed Space and Pump Room Entry Procedures:

An enclosed space is a space that has limited openings for entry and exit, unfavourable natural ventilation, and that is not designed for continuous worker occupancy. (ISGOTT Definitions p xxvi)
Enclosed spaces include, but are not limited to, cargo spaces, double bottoms, fuel tanks, ballast tanks, pump rooms, cofferdams, void spaces, duct keels, inter-barrier spaces, engine crankcases and sewage.
The Master and responsible officer are responsible for determining whether entry into an enclosed space may be permitted. It is the duty of the responsible officer to ensure:
That the space is ventilated;
That the atmosphere in the compartment is tested and found satisfactory;
That safeguards are in place to protect personnel from the hazards that are identified;
That appropriate means for controlling entry are in place.
Personnel carrying out work in an enclosed space are responsible for following the procedures and for using the safety equipment specified.
Prior to entry into an enclosed space, a risk assessment should be completed to identify the potential hazards and to determine the safeguards to be adopted. The resulting safe working practice should be documented and approved by the responsible officer before being countersigned by the Master, who confirms that the practice is safe and in compliance with the ship’s Safety Management System. The permit, or other enabling document, should be sighted and completed by the person entering the space, prior to entry.
The controls required for safe entry vary with the task being performed and the potential hazards identified during the risk assessment. However, in most cases an Entry Permit System will provide a convenient and effective means of ensuring and documenting that essential precautions have been taken and, where necessary, that physical safeguards have been put in place. The adoption of an Entry Permit System, which may include the use of a check list, is therefore recommended.
Permission to continue work should only be given for a period sufficient to complete the task. Under no circumstances should the period exceed one day.
A copy of the permit should be prominently displayed at the entrance to the space to inform personnel of the precautions to be taken when entering the space and of any restrictions placed upon the activities permitted within the space.
The permit should be rendered invalid if ventilation of the space stops or if any of the conditions noted in the check list change.
Restricting the issue of approvals, such as entry permits, so that all cargo tanks which are safe to enter are shown on one document, may be found to simplify the paper Administration, avoid overlapping and the possibility of confusion as to which approval applies to which tank. However, if such a system is used, there must be rigorous control to ensure cancellation of existing permits, and that the atmospheres of all named tanks are correctly tested at the time of issue so that an effective extension of a period of validity does not occur by default. It will be particularly important to ensure that the permit process is supplemented by the marking of tank lids with notices indicating which tanks are safe to enter.
Inspection of cargo tanks after cleaning and before loading can require an independent surveyor to enter the tank. All relevant tank entry procedures must be observed. (ISGOTT 10.4)
Note: The OCIMF Guidelines on Safety Management Systems for Hot Work and Entry into Enclosed Spaces (1st Edition September 2008) information paper must be taken into account in the development of enclosed space entry procedures.

5.24 Are enclosed space entry procedures in accordance with the recommendations of ISGOTT and OCIMF guidelines?

Notes: Recommendations relating to enclosed spaces are contained in ISGOTT Chapter 10.
In order to simplify the administrative process all cargo tanks which have been tested and found to be safe for entry may be shown on one permit, but the permit must record the readings for each compartment and the same entry procedures must be applied for each compartment entered.
OCIMF have confirmed that ballast tanks may be treated in the same way as cargo tanks and multiple ballast tanks may be entered on the same permit.
Under such circumstances compartments should be tagged to indicate which are safe to enter and which are not and rigorous control must be in place to ensure that permits are cancelled and the tags changed when entry has been completed.
To be considered safe for entry a reading of not more than 1% LFL must be obtained on suitable monitoring equipment.
Entry into a compartment which has not be cleaned or proved safe for entry must only be considered in an emergency situation. The operator should be involved in any decision to enter such a compartment.
The use of personal analyzers capable of continuously monitoring the oxygen content of the atmosphere, the presence of hydrocarbon vapour and, if appropriate, toxic vapour is strongly recommended.
Permission to work should only be given for a period sufficient to complete the task. Under no circumstances should the period exceed one day. NB: The term ‘one day’ means a duration which must not exceed 12 hours.

5.25 Are pump room entry procedures being complied with?

Cargo pump rooms are to be considered as enclosed spaces and the requirements of this Chapter should be followed to the maximum extent possible. However, because of their location, design and operational need for the space to be routinely entered by personnel, pump rooms present a particular hazard and therefore necessitate special precautions, which are described in the following sections. (ISGOTT 10.10)
Before anyone enters a pump room, it should be thoroughly ventilated, the oxygen content of the atmosphere should be verified and the atmosphere checked for the presence of hydrocarbons and any toxic gas associated with the cargo being handled.
Only where a fixed gas detection system is correctly calibrated and tested and provides gas readings as a percentage LFL (%LFL) to a level of accuracy equivalent to portable gas instruments, at representative locations within the pump room, should it be used to provide information for safe entry into the space.
Formal procedures should be in place to control pump room entry. The procedure used should be based on a risk assessment, should ensure that risk mitigation measures are followed, and that entries into the space are recorded.
A communications system should provide links between the pump room, navigation bridge, engine room and cargo control room. In addition, audible and visual repeaters for essential alarm systems, such as the general alarm and the fixed extinguishing system alarm, should be provided within the pump room.
Arrangements should be established to enable effective communication to be maintained at all times between personnel within the pump room and those outside. Regular communication checks should be made at pre-agreed intervals and failure to respond should be cause to raise the alarm.
VHF/UHF communication should not be used as a primary communication method where it is known that reception may not be reliable or practicable due to noise. Where communication by VHF/UHF is difficult, it is recommended that a standby person is positioned on the pump room top and that a visual and remote communication procedure is put in place.
The frequency of pump room entry for routine inspection purposes during cargo operations should be reviewed with a view to minimizing personnel exposure.
Notices should be displayed at the pump room entrance prohibiting entry without formal permission.
(ISGOTT 10.10.2)

5.26 Are pump room spaces adequately ventilated?

Cargo pump rooms shall be mechanically ventilated and discharges from the exhaust fans shall be led to a safe place on deck. The ventilation of these rooms shall have sufficient capacity to minimise the possibility of accumulation of flammable vapours. The number of changes of air shall be at least 20 per hour. The ventilation shall be of the suction type using fans of non-sparking type. (SOLAS II-2/4.5.4.1)
On vessels constructed after 1st July 2002, lighting in cargo pump-rooms, except emergency lighting, shall be interlocked with ventilation such that the ventilation shall be in operation when switching on the lighting. Failure of the ventilation system shall not cause the lighting to go out. (SOLAS 2004 II-2/4.5.10.1.2)
Notes: Pump room fans must be operating in the extraction mode. If only one extraction fan is installed, arrangements must be provided to provide extraction in case of failure.
If there is only one pump room extraction fan then a spare fan motor should be carried.

5.27 Are pump room fire and flooding dampers clearly marked as to their operation and in good order?

Note: Often the venting system is fitted with high level suctions at or above the bottom gratings, the flaps of which are operable from the pump room top. The purpose of these suctions is to allow the fans to be operated when the bilges are flooded. The flaps should, under normal operations, be closed.

5.28 Are permanent arrangements provided for lifting an incapacitated person from the cargo and, if applicable, the ballast pump room, including provision of a suitable stretcher or harness and is the equipment in good order?

The pump room rescue harness and rope should be checked regularly to ensure it is fit for use and rigged for immediate operation. (ISGOTT 10.11.3)

Monitoring Non-Cargo Spaces:

Note: Void and ballast tank spaces within the cargo tank block should be routinely monitored to check that no leakage has occurred from adjacent cargo tanks. Monitoring should include regular checks for hydrocarbon content and regular sounding/ullaging of the empty spaces, particularly to ensure that ballast, before it is discharged, is clean.

5.29 Are spaces adjacent to cargo tanks, including pipe ducts, regularly monitored for accumulations of gas?

Suitable portable instruments for measuring oxygen and flammable vapour concentrations shall be provided. In selecting these instruments, due attention shall be given to their use in combination with the fixed gas sampling line systems referred to in paragraph 5.7.2.2. (SOLAS II-2/4.5.7.2.1)
Where the atmosphere in double hull spaces cannot be reliably measured using flexible gas sampling hoses, such spaces shall be fitted with permanent gas sampling lines. The configuration of gas sampling lines shall be adapted to the design of such spaces. (SOLAS II-2/4.5.7.2.2)
Note: There should be a procedure for the regular monitoring of all spaces adjacent to the cargo tanks for accumulations of gas. If monitoring is made by use of portable instruments, the method, frequency of checking and adequacy of records should be established.

5.30 Where a fixed system to monitor flammable atmospheres in non-cargo spaces is fitted, are recorders and alarms in order?

Note: In the event of failure of the main system, manual checks must be made. Records should be reviewed to ensure that these have been conducted. Manufacturer’s instructions for the maintenance of the system should be followed.

Gas Analysing Equipment:

5.31 Are portable gas and oxygen analysers appropriate to the cargoes being carried and are they in good order?

Tankers shall be equipped with at least one portable instrument for measuring flammable vapour concentrations, together with a sufficient set of spares. Suitable means shall be provided for the calibration of such instruments. (SOLAS II-2/4.5.7.1)
Notes: Each vessel should carry at least two each oxygen, % volume hydrocarbon, LEL and toxic gas analysers. Personal oxygen and hydrocarbon analysers, which can be carried in a pocket or on a belt, should be available for tank, enclosed space or pump room entry.

5.32 Are officers familiar with use and calibration of portable oxygen and hydrocarbon analysers?

Notes: A procedure must require that all oxygen and hydrocarbon analysers are checked for correct operation before each use. Nitrogen must generally be used when calibrating oxygen analysers, but some multiple function analysers use a test gas which serves all the functions of the analyser with one sample gas and which has oxygen content of 20.9%.
In the case of hydrocarbon gas analysers, the correct test gas specified in the manufacturers’ documentation must be used and officers must know what the result of using that test gas should be. This applies to each type of analyser on board. As above, some multiple function analysers use a test gas which tests all the functions with one sample gas.

5.33 Is there a record of regular testing and calibration of portable
analysers?
Notes: The manufacturers’ recommended intervals for servicing the equipment ashore must be observed and procedures in place for the replacement of parts such as filters, at the manufacturers’ recommended intervals.
Use of a self-test facility does not necessarily mean that an analyser is operating correctly. An instrument may self-test satisfactorily, but then fail to register a lack of oxygen or the presence of gas. The only way to be sure that a machine is operating satisfactorily is to use a sample check gas.

5.34 Is sufficient span calibration gas available for the types of fixed and portable analysers on board?

5.35 On vessels fitted with an inert gas system, are instruments capable of measuring hydrocarbon content in an oxygen deficient atmosphere available, if required and in good order?

Notes: Vessels equipped with inert gas should in addition to the analysers in question 5.31 carry two analysers capable of measuring hydrocarbon content in an inert atmosphere.
Personnel should ensure that the analyser being used for measuring hydrocarbon content in an inert gas atmosphere is in fact capable of doing so accurately. An example of an analyser specifically designed to do so is the MSA Tankscope. Analysers which measure hydrocarbons using an infra-red principle are designed for use in oxygen-deficient atmospheres. If this type of instrument is provided, a Tankscope is not required to be carried.
In cases where a vessel is not fitted with an inert gas system, but does employ nitrogen blanketing, these instruments must be provided.

5.36 Where toxic gases may be encountered, are appropriate toxic gas detection analysers available and in good order?

Many crude oils come out of the well with high levels of H2S, but a stabilisation process usually reduces this level before the crude oil is delivered to the ship. However, the amount of stabilisation may be temporarily reduced at times and a tanker may receive a cargo with an H2S content higher than usual or expected. In addition, some crude oils are never stabilised and always contain high levels of H2S. H2S can also be encountered in refined products such as naphtha, fuel oil, bunker fuels, bitumens and gas oils.
Cargo and bunker fuels should not be treated as free of H2S until after they have been loaded and the absence of H2S has been confirmed by both the results of monitoring and the relevant MSDS information.
(ISGOTT 2.3.6.1)
The use of personal H2S gas monitoring instruments by personnel engaged in cargo operations is strongly recommended. (ISGOTT 2.3.6.4)
Notes: Two toxic gas detectors are required on vessels carrying noxious liquids.
There should be an adequate supply of chemical indicator tubes (e.g. Draeger tubes), specific to the cargoes being carried and they should be within their expiry date.
An up to date inventory of chemical indicator tubes should be maintained.
Personnel should be aware that some instrument sensors could be poisoned if exposed to high concentrations of CO2.
Precautions against high H2S concentrations are normally considered necessary if the H2S content in the vapour phase is 5ppm by volume or above. A crude oil containing 70 ppm (by weight) H2S will produce a concentration of 7,000 ppm (by volume) in the gas stream leaving the tank vent.
Electrochemical analysers are cross-sensitive to the SO2 in inert gas when measuring H2S content and the analyser will give higher readings of H2S than is actually the case. The level of cross sensitivity is about 4 to 1 and therefore if there is 20 ppm SO2 in the sample the H2S reading will be 5 ppm higher than is actually the case. In other words for every 5ppm SO2 the reading of H2S will be 1ppm higher. Normally this will not present a problem and it is only if the level of H2S is required to be accurately measured will Draeger tubes or the equivalent be required to be used.

Analysers can also be cross sensitive with other gases. For example, the presence of hydrogen in places such as battery lockers and lifeboats as a result of battery charging, can give a reading on a CO analyser. – about 400 ppm hydrogen will give a reading of about 50 ppm CO.

Hot Work Procedures:

5.37 Are hot work procedures in accordance with the recommendations of ISGOTT Section 9.4 and OCIMF guidelines?

There have been a number of fires and explosions due to Hot Work in, on, or near cargo tanks or other spaces that contain, or that have previously contained, flammable substances or substances that emit flammable vapours. Hot Work should only be considered if there are no practical alternative means of repair.
(ISGOTT 9.4)
The SMS should include adequate guidance on control of Hot Work and should be robust enough to ensure compliance (See Fig 9.2). Absence of guidance should be regarded as prohibition rather than approval (IMO MSC/Circ. 1084). (ISGOTT 9.4.1)

Note: The OCIMF Guidelines on Safety Management Systems for Hot Work and Entry into Enclosed Spaces (1st Edition September 2008) information paper must be taken into account in the development of hot work procedures.

5.38 Is electric welding equipment in good order and are written safety guidelines available on site?

Welding and other equipment used for hot work should be carefully inspected before each occasion of use to ensure that it is in good condition. Where required, it must be correctly earthed. Special attention must be paid when using electric arc equipment to ensure that:
Electrical supply connections are made in a gas free space;
Existing supply wiring is adequate to carry the electrical current demand without overloading, causing heating;
Insulation of flexible electric cables is in good condition;
The cable route to the work site is the safest possible, only passing over gas free or inerted spaces;
The welding return lead should be connected as near as practicable to the welding arc; metal rails, pipes and frames should not be used as part of the welding circuit unless they are a part of the work piece itself. (ISGOTT 9.5)

5.39 Is gas welding and burning equipment in good order?

5.40 Is fixed piping installed from the gas cylinders to the operating position?

Note: Piping should be of steel welded construction. Copper, rubber, or braided lines should not be used, except that braided lines may be used for the short length from the cylinder heads to the manifolds within the storage space. Pipework and fittings should be free of grease.
Hose connections for oxygen should be right handed, threads for acetylene and other gases should be left handed.

5.41 Are flashback arrestors fitted at the cylinders and at the workstation and are they in good order?

Note: The fitting of flashback arrestors at both the cylinders and the workstation is recommended by the USA Operational Safety and Health Admin (OSHA), the UK Health and Safety Executive and other national safety authorities where long lengths of piping between the cylinders and the blowtorch are involved.

5.42 Are spare oxygen and acetylene cylinders stored apart in a dedicated storage and is the storage in a clearly marked, well-ventilated position outside the accommodation and engine room?

Notes: Oxygen will not burn or explode, it only supports combustion; however, a small amount of excess oxygen will allow materials which are not normally combustible to burn with ferocity. Industrial Oxygen cylinders are painted blue. Acetylene is 92.3% carbon and 7.7% hydrogen, is lighter than air, and is highly flammable with a LEL of 2.5%. Acetylene cylinders are painted maroon.
Oxygen and Acetylene should be kept in separate compartments except in the case of the cylinders that are in use, which may be stored in the same compartment. Cylinders should be stowed away from heat sources and should not be in heavy traffic areas to prevent accidental knocking over or damage from passing or failing objects. Valve caps should remain on cylinders not connected for use. Full and empty cylinders should be segregated. Cylinders should be stored with the valve end up. Storage areas should be free of combustible material and not exposed to salt or other corrosive chemicals.

Life Saving Equipment:

Before the ship leaves port and at all times during the voyage, all life-saving appliances shall be in working order and ready for immediate use. (SOLAS III/20.2)
Note: The technical specifications and requirements for life-saving appliances are contained in the Life-Saving Appliances Code.

5.43 Are ship-specific Life-Saving Equipment Training Manuals available?

A training manual shall be provided in each crew mess room and recreation room, or in each cabin.
(SOLAS III/35.2)
The training manual shall contain instructions and information, in easily understood terms illustrated wherever possible, on the life-saving appliances provided in the ship and on the best methods of survival. Any part of such information may be provided in the form of audio-visual aids in lieu of the manual.
The following shall be explained in detail:
Donning of lifejackets, immersion suits and anti-exposure suits;
Muster at assigned stations;
Boarding, launching and clearing the survival craft and rescue boats;
Method of launching from within survival craft;
Release from launching appliances;
Illumination in launching areas;
Use of all survival equipment;
With the assistance of illustrations, the use of radio life-saving appliances;
Use of drogues;
Use of engine and accessories;
Recovery of survival craft and rescue boats, including stowage and securing;
Hazards of exposure and the need for warm clothing;
Best use of survival craft facilities in order to survive;
Methods of retrieval, including the use of helicopter gear;
All other functions contained in the muster list and emergency instructions; and
Instructions for repair of the life saving appliances. (SOLAS III/35.3)
The training manual shall be written in the working language of the ship. (SOLAS III/35.4)

5.44 Are ship-specific life-saving equipment maintenance instructions available and are weekly and monthly inspections being carried out?

The following tests and inspections shall be carried out weekly and a report of the inspection shall be entered in the log book:
.1 All survival craft, rescue boats and launching appliances shall be visually inspected to ensure that they are ready for use. The inspection shall include, but is not limited to, the condition of hooks, their attachment to the lifeboat and the on-load release gear being properly and completely reset;
.2 All engines in lifeboats and rescue boats shall be run for a total period of not less than 3 minutes, provided the ambient temperature is above the minimum temperature required for starting and running the engine. During this period of time, it should be demonstrated that the gearbox and gearbox train are engaging satisfactorily. If the special characteristics of an outboard motor fitted to a rescue boat would not allow it to be run other than with its propeller submerged for a period of 3 minutes, it should be run for such a period as prescribed in the manufacturer's handbook. In special cases, the Administration may waive this requirement for ships constructed before 1ST July 1986;
.3 Lifeboats, except free-fall lifeboats, on cargo ships shall be moved from their stowed position, without any persons on board, to the extent necessary to demonstrate satisfactory operation of launching appliances, if weather and sea conditions so allow; and
.4 The general emergency alarm shall be tested. (SOLAS III/20.6)
All lifeboats, except free-fall lifeboats, shall be turned out from their stowed position, without any persons on board if weather and sea conditions so allow. (SOLAS III/20.7.1)
Monthly inspections: Inspection of the life-saving appliances, including lifeboat equipment, shall be carried out monthly using the checklist required by Reg. 36.1 to ensure that they are complete and in good order. A report of the inspection shall be entered in the log book. (SOLAS III/20.7.2)
Instructions for on-board maintenance shall be easily understood, illustrated wherever possible and as appropriate, shall include for each appliance:
A checklist for use when carrying out the monthly inspections required by SOLAS III/20.7.2 and III/36.1;
Maintenance and repair instructions;
A schedule of periodic maintenance;
A diagram of lubrication points with the recommended lubricants;
A list of replaceable parts;
A list of sources of spare parts; and
A log for records of inspections and maintenance. (SOLAS III/36)
Launching appliances shall be:
Maintained in accordance with instructions for on-board maintenance as required by regulation 36;
Subjected to a thorough examination at the annual and renewal Safety Equipment Certificate surveys, as applicable;
Upon completion of the examination referred to above, subjected to a dynamic test of the winch brake at maximum lowering speed. The load to be applied shall be the mass of the lifeboat without persons on board, except that, at intervals not exceeding 5 years, the test shall be carried out with a proof load of 1.1 times the maximum working load of the winch. (SOLAS III/20.11.1)
Instructions for on-board maintenance of life-saving appliances complying with regulation 36 shall be provided and maintenance shall be carried out accordingly. (SOLAS III/20.3.1)
The Administration may accept, in compliance with the requirements of paragraph 3.2, a shipboard planned maintenance programme, which includes the requirements of regulation 36. (SOLAS III/20.3.1)

5.45 Are muster lists and lifejacket donning instructions displayed?

Muster lists and emergency instructions shall be exhibited in conspicuous places throughout the ship including the navigation bridge, engine room and crew accommodation spaces. (SOLAS III/8.3)
The muster list shall show the duties assigned to the different members of the crew including:
Closing of the watertight doors, fire doors, valves, scuppers, sidescuttles, portholes and other similar openings in the ship;
Equipping of the survival craft and other life-saving appliances;
Preparation and launching of survival craft;
General preparations of other life-saving appliances;
Muster of passengers;
Use of communication equipment;
Manning of fire parties assigned to deal with fires; and
Special duties assigned in respect to the use of fire-fighting equipment and installations.
(SOLAS III/37.3)
The muster list shall specify which officers are assigned to ensure that life-saving and fire appliances are maintained in good condition and ready for immediate use. (SOLAS III/37.4)
The muster list shall specify substitutes for key persons who may become disabled, taking into account that different emergencies may call for different actions. (SOLAS III/37.5)
The muster list shall be prepared before the ship proceeds to sea. (SOLAS III/37.7)
The general emergency alarm system shall be capable of sounding the general emergency alarm signal consisting of seven or more short blasts followed by one long blast on the ship’s whistle or siren and additionally on an electrically operated bell or klaxon or other equivalent warning system.
(LSA Code VII/7.2.11)

5.46 Is there a maintenance and test schedule for lifeboat on-load release gear?

Lifeboat or rescue boat on-load release gear, including freee-fall lifeboat release systems, shall be:
Maintained in accordance with instructions for on-board maintenance as required by Reg. 36;
Subjected to a thorough examination and operational test during the annual surveys required by regulations I/7 and I/8 by properly trained personnel familiar with the system; and
Operationally tested under a load of 1.1 times the total mass of the lifeboat when loaded with its full complement of person and equipment whenever the release gear is overhauled. Such over-hauling and test shall be carried out at least once every five years. (SOLAS III/20.11.2)
Note: Of particular importance in the checking of lifeboats is the on-load release system fitted to enclosed lifeboats and the maintenance routines for them. A high percentage of accidents at sea are attributed to lifeboats and their release systems. (MSC/Circ. 1206)

5.47 Are lifeboats, including their equipment and launching mechanisms, in good order?

Each survival craft shall be stowed in a state of continuous readiness so that two crew members can carry out preparations for embarkation and launching in less than 5 minutes. (SOLAS III/13.1.3)
Each lifeboat shall be launched with its assigned operating crew aboard and manoeuvred in the water at least once every three months during an abandon ship drill. (SOLAS III/19.3.3.3)
In the case of a lifeboat arranged for free-fall launching, at least once every three months during an abandon ship drill, the crew shall board the lifeboat, properly secure themselves in their seats and commence launch procedures up to, but not including, the actual release of the lifeboat (i.e., the release hook shall not be released). The lifeboat shall then either be free-fall launched with only the required operating crew on board, or lowered into the water by means of the secondary means of launching with or without the operating crew on board. In both cases, the lifeboat shall thereafter be manoeuvred in the water by the operating crew. At intervals of not more than six months, the lifeboat shall either be launched by free fall with only the operating crew on board, or simulated launching shall be carried out in accordance with the guidelines developed by the Organisation. (SOLAS III.19.3.3.4)
Emergency lighting for mustering and abandonment shall be tested at each abandon ship drill.
(SOLAS III/19.3.3.9)
Falls used in launching shall be inspected periodically (Refer to Measures to Prevent Accidents with Lifeboats (MSC.1/Circ. 1206) with special regard for areas passing through sheaves, and renewed when necessary due to deterioration of the falls or at intervals of not more than 5 years, whichever is the earlier. (SOLAS III/20.4.1)
Each free-fall lifeboat shall be fitted with a release system which shall be designed to test the release system without launching the lifeboat. (LSA Code IV/4.7.6.4)
Each lifeboat shall be clearly marked with the number of persons for which the lifeboat is approved and the name and port of registry. Means of identifying the ship to which the lifeboat belongs and the number of the lifeboat shall be marked in such a way that they are visible from above. (LSA Code IV/4.4.9)
Notes: It is very important to check the lifting hooks and their associated structure, in particular the connections to the lifeboat keel. These are occasionally found to be severely wasted.
Lifeboat equipment is detailed in the LSA Code IV/4.4.8 and the general requirements for enclosed lifeboats in the LSA Code IV/4.6, although under SOLAS III/32.3.5 the totally enclosed lifeboats carried on ships constructed before 1st July 1986 need not comply with the requirements of the LSA Code IV/4.6.
Amendments to SOLAS III/19 (Emergency training and drills) and 20 (Operational readiness, maintenance and inspections) came into force on 1st July 2006. The amendments concern the conditions in which lifeboat emergency training and drills should be conducted and introduce changes to the operational requirements for maintenance, weekly and monthly inspections so as not to require any persons to be on board, and servicing of launching appliances and on-load release gear.
Class societies recommend that the compressed air cylinders for the lifeboat self-contained air support system should be hydraulically tested every 5 years.

5.48 Are lifeboat and liferaft operating instructions displayed?

Posters or signs shall be provided on or in the vicinity of survival craft and their launching controls shall:
Illustrate the purpose of the controls and the procedures for operating the appliance and give relevant instructions or warnings;
Be easily seen under emergency lighting conditions; and
Use symbols in accordance with Res. A.760, as amended by MSC.82. (SOLAS III/9.2)

5.49 Is the rescue boat, including its equipment and launching arrangement, in good order?

Cargo ships shall carry at least one rescue boat. A lifeboat may be accepted as a rescue boat, provided that it also complies with the requirements for a rescue boat. (SOLAS III/31.2)
Rescue boats shall be stowed in a state of continuous readiness for launching in not more than 5 minutes.
(SOLAS III/14.1)
Notes: Rescue boat equipment is detailed in the LSA Code V/5.1.2.2, 3 and 4.
With respect to launching equipment, rescue boats should comply with the requirements of the LSA Code 4.4.7.6 (by LSA Code 5.1.1.1) and either have two release capabilities, one off-load and one on-load, or only one if the rescue boat can only be released when waterborne.
The on-load release shall be:
Protected against accidental or premature use;
To prevent a premature on-load release, on-load operation of the release mechanism should require a sustained and deliberate action by the operator;
To prevent an accidental release the mechanical protection (interlock) should only engage when the release mechanism is properly and completely set;
The release mechanism shall be so designed that crew members in the lifeboat can clearly observe when the release mechanism is properly and completely reset;
Clear operating instructions should be provided with a suitable worded warning notice;
Where a single fall or hook system is used for launching, the above requirements need not apply and a single capability to release the rescue boat only when it is waterborne will be adequate.
SOLAS amendments, which came into effect in July 2008, require the annual inspection of rescue boat falls. Falls are to be renewed at intervals of not more than 5 years.
Annual and five-year thorough examinations of rescue boat on-load release gear are also required.
A five yearly dynamic winch brake test to the weight of the rescue boat and its full complement of persons and equipment is required.
These tests are to be provided by competent persons familiar with the system and include, but is not necessarily limited to, manufacturer’s representatives or a special vendor certified by the manufacturer. However, some flag states restrict personnel who are allowed to work on the on-load release gear or other components to either the manufacturer or a manufacturer-certified vendor only.
Foul weather recovery strops shall be provided for safety if heavy fall blocks constitute a danger.

5.50 Are liferafts in good order?

Cargo ships shall carry one or more inflatable or rigid liferafts, of a mass of less than 185 kg and stowed in a position providing for easy side-to-side transfer at a single open deck level and of such aggregate capacity as will accommodate the total number of persons on board. If the liferaft or liferafts are not of a mass of less than 185 kg and not stowed in a position providing for easy side-to-side transfer at a single open deck level, the total capacity available on each side shall be sufficient to accommodate the total number of persons on board. (SOLAS III/31.1.2)
If a free-fall lifeboat is fitted, cargo ships shall have one or more inflatable or rigid liferafts, on each side of the ship, of such aggregate capacity as will accommodate the total number of persons on board. The liferafts on at least one side of the ship shall be served by launching appliances. (SOLAS III/31.1.2.2)
For davit launched liferafts, the launching appliance shall include an automatic release hook arranged so as to prevent premature release during lowering and shall release the liferaft when waterborne. The release hook shall include a capability to release the hook under load. The on-load release control shall:
Be clearly differentiated from the control which activates the automatic release function;
Require at least two separate actions to operate;
Be designed such that crew members on deck can clearly observe when the release mechanism is properly and completely set. (LSA Code VI/6.1.5)
Davit-launched liferaft automatic release hooks shall be:
Maintained in accordance with instructions for on-board maintenance as required by regulation 36;
Subject to a thorough examination and operational tests during the annual surveys required by regulation I/7 and I/8 by properly trained personnel familiar with the system; and
Operationally tested under a load of 1.1 times the total mass of the liferaft when loaded with its full complement of persons and equipment whenever the automatic release hook is overhauled. Such overhauling and test shall be carried out at least every five years.
(SOLAS 2006 amendments III/20.11.3.2)
Note: These tests are to be provided by competent persons familiar with the system and include, but is not necessarily limited to, manufacturer’s representatives or a special vendor certified by the manufacturer. However, some flag states restrict personnel who are allowed to work on the on-load release gear or other components to either the manufacturer or a manufacturer-certified vendor only.
In accordance with IMO Resolution A.761, dated items of equipment need only be replaced if there is less than 6 months remaining before the expiry date.

5.51 Are hydrostatic releases, where fitted, correctly attached and in good order?

Every liferaft shall be stowed with its painter permanently attached to the ship. (SOLAS III/13.4.1)
Each liferaft or group of liferafts shall be stowed with a float-free arrangement complying with the requirements of paragraph 4.1.6 of the Code (Float-free arrangements for liferafts) so that each floats free and if inflatable, inflates automatically when the ship sinks. (SOLAS III/13.4.2)
Liferafts shall be so stowed as to permit manual release of one raft or container at a time from their securing arrangements. (SOLAS III/13.4.3)
Note: Some hydrostatic release manufacturers recommend that each liferaft is fitted with its own individual hydrostatic release unit (HRU), to prevent the possibility, where more than one liferaft is utilizing the same release, of one of the liferafts breaking the weak link before the second or subsequent liferafts have inflated. Where more than one liferaft is attached to a single HRU, each of the rafts must be fitted with its own weak link. Liferafts stowed in the forward part of the vessel do not require a HRU.
Cargo ships where the horizontal distance from the extreme end of the stem or stern of the ship to the nearest end of the closest survival craft is more than 100 metres shall carry a liferaft stowed as far forward or aft, or one as far forward and another as far aft, as is reasonable and practicable. Such liferaft or liferafts may be securely fastened so as to permit manual release and need not be of the type which can be launched from an approved launching device. (SOLAS III/31.1.4)

5.52 Are survival craft portable VHF radios and Search and Rescue Locating Devices in good order and charged?

At least 3 two-way VHF radiotelephone apparatus shall be provided on every cargo ship of 500 gross tonnage and upwards. (SOLAS III/6.2.1.1)
The two-way radiotelephone should be capable of operation on the frequency 156.800 MHz (VHF channel 16) and on at least one additional channel. (Res. A.890/3.1)
The source of energy should be integrated in the equipment and may be replaceable by the user. In addition, provision may be made to operate the equipment using an external source of electrical energy.
(Res. A.890/12.1)
Equipment for which the source of energy is intended to be user-replaceable should be provided with a dedicated primary battery for use in the event of a distress situation. This battery should be equipped with a non-replaceable seal to indicate that it has not been used. (Res. A.890/12.2)
Equipment for which the source of energy is intended to be non-user-replaceable should be provided with a primary battery. The portable two-way radiotelephone equipment should be fitted with a non-replaceable seal to indicate that it has not been used. (Res. A.890/12.3)
At least one radar transponder shall be carried on each side of every cargo ship of 500 gross tonnage and upwards. The radar transponders shall be stowed in such locations that they can be rapidly placed in any survival craft (other than the forward liferaft). On ships equipped with free-fall lifeboats, one of the transponders shall be stowed in the free-fall lifeboat and the other located in the immediate vicinity of the navigation bridge so that it can be utilised on board and ready to transfer to any other survival craft.
(SOLAS III/6.2.2)
Note: The requirements for survival craft two-way VHF radios are contained in IMO Res. A.809(19).

The equipment should be portable and capable of being used for on-scene communication between survival craft, between survival craft and ship and between survival craft and rescue unit. It may also be used for on-board communications when capable of operating on appropriate frequencies.
2.2 The equipment should comprise at least:
1. An integral transmitter/receiver including antenna and battery;
2. An integral control unit including a press-to-transmit switch; and
3. An internal microphone and loudspeaker. (Res A.809(19) 2.2)
2.3 The equipment should:
1. Be capable of being operated by unskilled personnel;
2. Be capable of being operated by personnel wearing gloves as specified for immersion suits in regulation 33 of chapter III of 1974 SOLAS Convention;
3. Be capable of single -handed operation except for channel selection;
4. Withstand drops on to a hard surface from a height of 1 metre;
5. Be watertight to a depth of 1 m for at least 5 minutes;
6. Maintain watertightness when subjected to a thermal shock of 45°C under conditions of immersion;
7. Not be unduly affected by seawater, or oil, or both;
8. Have no sharp projections which could damage survival craft;
9. Be of small size and light weight. (Res A.809(19) 2.3)
The source of energy should be integrated in the equipment and may be replaceable by the user. In addition, provision may be made to operate the equipment using an external source of electrical energy.
Equipment for which the source of energy is intended to be user-replaceable should be provided with a dedicated primary battery for use in the event of a distress situation. This battery should be equipped with a non-replaceable seal to indicate that it has not been used.
Equipment for which the source of energy is intended to be non-user-replaceable should be provided with a primary battery. The portable two-way radiotelephone equipment should be fitted with a non replaceable seal to indicate that it has not been used.
The primary battery should have sufficient capacity to ensure 8-hour operation at its highest rated power with a duty cycle of 1:9. This duty cycle is defined as 6-second transmission, 6-second reception above squelch opening level and 48-second reception below squelch opening level.
Primary batteries should have a shelf life of at least 2 years, and if identified to be user-replaceable should be of a colour or marking as defined in 2.3.13.
Batteries not intended for use in the event of a distress situation should be of a colour or marking such that they cannot be confused with batteries intended for such use. (Res A.809(19) 12)

5.53 Are lifebuoys, lights, buoyant lines, quick release mechanisms and self-activating smoke floats in good order?

Cargo ships shall carry not less than the following numbers of lifebuoys:
Under 100 metres in length 8
Between 100 metres and under 150 metres 10
Between 150 metres and under 200 metres 12
200 metres and over 14 (SOLAS III/32.1.1)
Lifebuoys shall be:
So distributed as to be readily available on both sides of the ship and as far as practicable on all open decks extending to the ship’s side;
At least one shall be placed in the vicinity of the stern; and
So stowed as to be capable of being rapidly cast loose and not permanently secured in any way.
(SOLAS III/7.1.1)
At least one lifebuoy on each side of the ship shall be fitted with a buoyant line, equal in length to not less than twice the height at which it is stowed above the waterline in the lightest seagoing condition, or 30 metres, whichever is the greater. (SOLAS III/7.1.2)
Not less than one half of the total number of lifebuoys shall be provided with self-igniting lights;
Not less than two of these shall also be provided with lifebuoy self-activating smoke signals capable of quick release from the navigating bridge;
Lifebuoys with lights and those with lights and smoke signals shall be distributed equally on both sides of the ship and shall not be the lifebuoys provided with lifelines. (SOLAS III/7.1.3)
Lifebuoys intended to operate the quick-release arrangement provided for the self-activated smoke signals and self-igniting lights shall have a mass sufficient to operate the quick release arrangement.
(LSA Code II/2.1.1.7)

5.54 Are lifejackets in good order?

A lifejacket shall be provided for every person on board and, in addition, a sufficient number of lifejackets shall be carried for persons on watch and for use at remotely located survival craft stations. The lifejackets carried for persons on watch should be stowed on the bridge, in the engine control room and at any other manned watch station. (SOLAS III/7.2.1)
The lifejackets used in totally enclosed lifeboats, except free-fall lifeboats, shall not impede entry into the lifeboat or seating including operation of the seat belts in the lifeboat. (SOLAS III/7.2.3)
Lifejackets selected for free-fall lifeboats and the manner in which they are carried or worn, shall not interfere with entry into the lifeboat, occupant safety or operation of the lifeboat. (SOLAS III/7.2.4)

5.55 Are immersion suits in a good order?

An immersion suit or an anti-exposure suit, of an appropriate size, shall be provided for every person assigned to crew the rescue boat. If the ship is constantly engaged in warm climates where, in the opinion of the Administration thermal protection is unnecessary, this protective clothing need not be carried.
(SOLAS III/7.3)
An immersion suit complying with the requirements of section 2.3 of the LSA Code shall be provided for every person on board the ship. These immersion suits need not be required if the ship is constantly engaged on voyages in warm climates where, in the opinion of the Administration, immersion suits are unnecessary.
(SOLAS III/32.3.2)
If a ship has any watch or work stations which are located remotely from the place or places where immersion suits are normally stowed, including remotely locate survival craft carried in accordance with regulation 31.1.4, additional immersion suits shall be provided at these locations for the number of persons normally on watch or working at those locations at any time. (SOLAS III/32.3.3)
Note: Immersion suits should be subject to periodic testing as set out in MSC/Circ. 1114.
Immersion suits, of an appropriate size, shall be so placed as to be readily accessible and their position shall be plainly indicated. (SOLAS III/32.3.3)
Immersion suits should be checked to ensure that the personnel designated to operate the rescue boat have suits that fit them reasonably well and do not hamper their ability to operate the rescue boat or to rescue personnel.
There are different interpretations of the terms ‘remotely located watch station and ‘remotely located work station’. If immersion suits are stored in cabins or in a store in the accommodation area then the bridge and engine room are not considered to be remotely located. Some Administrations have interpreted the regulation as follows:
Additional immersion suits shall be provided for each person on watch or at any normal work location that is remote from where immersion suits are normally stowed. For the purposes of this paragraph, a normal work location is a location where a crew member regularly carries out normal work functions. Examples include but are not limited to: control rooms, machine shops, galleys, offices, and remote lookout positions. These locations would be considered remote if the individual could not reasonably retrieve their assigned immersion suit in the event of an emergency. At a minimum, additional suits shall be provided to the navigation bridge and the engine control room for all watch standers at those locations.
Immersion suits require periodic air testing. Suits which are less than 10 years old should tested at intervals not exceeding 3 years. Those more than 10 years old or those in questionable condition should be tested more frequently. Testing may be conducted on bard if suitable equipment is available.

5.56 Are pyrotechnics, including line throwing apparatus, in date and in good order?

Not less than 12 rocket parachute flares shall be carried and be stowed on or near the navigation bridge.
(SOLAS III/6.3)
A line throwing appliance complying with the requirements of section 7.1 of the Code shall be provided.
(SOLAS III/18)
An illustrated table describing the life-saving signals shall be readily available to the officer of the watch.
(SOLAS V/29)

5.57 Are the locations of life saving appliances marked with IMO symbols?

Containers, brackets, racks and other similar stowage locations for life-saving equipment shall be marked with symbols in accordance with IMO Res. A.760(18) indicating the devices stowed in that location for that purpose. If more than one device is stowed in that location, the number of devices shall also be indicated.
(SOLAS III/20.10)

Fire Fighting Equipment:

Fire fighting systems and appliances shall be kept in good working order and readily available for immediate use. Portable extinguishers which have been discharged shall be immediately recharged or replaced with an equivalent unit. (SOLAS II-2/14.2.1.2)
By the first scheduled dry-docking after 1st January 2010, fixed carbon dioxide fire-extinguishing systems for the protection of machinery spaces and cargo pump-rooms on ships constructed before 1st July 2002 shall comply with the provisions of paragraph 2.2.2 of chapter 5 of the Fire Safety Systems Code.
(SOLAS 2-II/10.4.1.5)
Note: This requires two separate controls within a clearly identified release box to release the CO2 and activate an audible alarm. One control shall open the piping valve for the gas and the second control discharge the gas from the containers. If the release box is locked, a key shall be located adjacent in a break glass type enclosure.

5.58 Are ship-specific Fire Training Manuals available?

The Training Manual shall explain the following in detail:
General fire safety practice and precautions related to the dangers of smoking, electrical hazards, flammable liquids and similar common shipboard hazards;
General instructions on fire-fighting activities and fire-fighting procedures, including procedures for notification of a fire and use of manually operated call points;
Meanings of the ship’s alarms;
Operation and use of fire-fighting systems and appliances;
Operation and use of fire doors;
Operation and use of fire and smoke dampers; and
Escape systems and appliances. (SOLAS II-2/15.2.3.4)
A Training Manual shall be provided in each crew mess room and recreation room, or in each crew cabin.
(SOLAS II-2/15.2.3.1)
The Training Manual shall be written in the working language of the ship. (SOLAS II-2/15.2.3.2)

5.59 Are ship-specific Fire Safety Operational Booklets available?

The Fire Safety Operational Booklet shall contain the necessary information and instructions for the safe operation of the ship and cargo handling operations in relation to fire safety. The booklet shall include information concerning the crew’s responsibilities for the general fire safety of the ship while loading and discharging cargo and while under way. The booklet shall also provide reference to the pertinent fire-fighting and emergency cargo handling instructions contained in the IBC Code, the IGC Code and the IMDG Code, as appropriate. (SOLAS II-2/16.2.1)
The Fire Safety Operational Booklet shall also include provisions for preventing fire spread to the cargo area due to ignition of flammable vapours and include procedures for cargo tank gas-purging and/or gas-freeing.
(SOLAS II-2/16.3.1)
The Fire Safety Operational Booklet shall be provided in each crew mess room and recreation room, or in each crew cabin. (SOLAS II-2/16.2.2)
The booklet shall be written in the working language of the ship. (SOLAS II-2/16.2.3)
The booklet may be combined with the fire training manual. (SOLAS II-2/16.2.4)

5.60 Are ship-specific fire fighting equipment maintenance instructions available and are weekly and monthly inspections being carried out?

Maintenance, testing, and inspections shall be carried out based on the guidelines in MSC/Circ. 850.
The maintenance plan shall be kept on board the ship and shall be available for inspection.
(SOLAS II-2/14.2.2.2
The maintenance plan shall include at least the following fire protection systems and fire fighting systems and appliances, where installed:
Fire mains, fire pumps and hydrants, hoses, nozzles and international shore connections;
Fixed fire detection and fire alarm systems;
Fixed fire extinguishing systems and other fire extinguishing appliances;
Automatic sprinkler, fire detection and fire alarm systems;
Ventilation systems, including fire and smoke dampers, fans and their controls;
Emergency shutdown of fuel supply;
Fire doors, including their controls;
General emergency alarm systems;
Emergency escape breathing devices;
Portable fire extinguishers, including spare charges;
Fire fighter’s-outfits;
Inert gas systems;
Deck foam systems;
Fire safety arrangements in cargo pump rooms; and
Flammable gas detectors. (SOLAS II-2/14.2.2.3) and 14.4)
The maintenance programme may be computer-based. (SOLAS II-2/14.2.2.4)

5.61 Are records available to show that samples of foam compound have been tested at regular intervals?

The first periodical control of medium expansion foam concentrates stored on board should be performed after a period of 3 years and, after that, every year. (MSC/Circ. 798/5.1)
A record of the age of the foam concentrates and of subsequent controls should be kept on board.
(MSC/Circ. 798/5.2)
Protein-based alcohol-resistant foam concentrates should be required to demonstrate manufacturing consistency through an annual small-scale test at a recognised test laboratory. (MSC.1/Circ. 1312)

5.62 Is a fire control plan exhibited within the accommodation, is a copy also available externally, and is equipment correctly marked on it?

Note: The requirements for fire plans are contained in SOLAS II-2/15.2.4. IMO Res. A.654(16) recommends the symbols to be used on fire control plans.

5.63 Are fire mains, pumps, hoses and nozzles in good order and available for immediate use?

Note: Consistent with safety and without interfering with operations, randomly select isolating valves for demonstration of correct operation.
Fire hoses shall have a length of at least 10 metres, but not more than:
15 metres in machinery spaces;
20 metres in other spaces and open decks; and
25 metres for open decks on ships with a maximum breadth in excess of 30 metres.
(SOLAS II-2/10.2.3.1.1)

5.64 Are isolating valves in fire and foam system lines clearly marked and in good order?

In tankers, isolation valves shall be fitted in the fire main at the poop front in a protected position and on the tank deck at intervals of not more than 40 metres to preserve the integrity of the fire main system in case of fire or explosion. (SOLAS II-2/10.2.1.44)

5.65 Is the International shore fire connection readily available externally and is the location clearly marked?

The connection shall be of steel or other suitable material. The connection shall be kept aboard the ship together with a gasket of any material suitable, with four 16 mm bolts, 50 mm in length and eight washers.
(FSS Code 2.2)
If fixed on a ship, the connection should be accessible from both sides of the ship and its location should be clearly marked. The shore connection should be ready for use whenever a ship is in port. (ISGOTT 26.5.3)
The terminal should also have a ship to shore connection and the flanges of the connection from the ship and that from the shore should be bolted together to provide water to the vessel from the shore fire main.
(ISGOTT 19.5.3.5)

5.66 Are fixed fire detection and alarm systems in good order and tested regularly?

Notes: There should be a procedure for whenever a zone of a fire detection system is isolated to ensure that relevant personnel are aware of the isolation and the reason for it and to ensure that the zone is reinstated as soon as possible.
The engine room should not be operated unmanned with any zone in the space isolated.
Spaces not covered by a fire detection system should be covered by regular fire patrols. Such patrols should not utilise the bridge lookout during the hours of darkness.

5.67 Are the main deck, pump room, engine room and other fixed fire extinguishing systems, where fitted, in good order and are clear operating instructions posted?

Paint lockers and flammable liquid lockers shall be protected by an appropriate fire-extinguishing arrangement approved by the Administration. (SOLAS 1974 II-2/18.7 and SOLAS 2004 II-2/10.6.3.2)
For ships constructed after 1st July 2002, paint lockers shall be protected by:
A CO2 system, designed to give a minimum volume of free gas equal to 40% of the gross volume of the protected space; or
A dry powder system, designed for at least 0.5 kg powder/m3; or
A water spraying system; or
A system providing equivalent protection, as determined by the Administration.
(SOLAS 2004 II-2/10.6.3.1)
For lockers of a deck area of less than 4m2 which do not give access to accommodation spaces, a portable CO2 extinguisher sized to provide a minimum volume of free gas equal to 40% of the gross volume of the space may be accepted in lieu of a fixed system. A discharge port shall be arranged in the locker to allow the discharge of the extinguisher without having to enter the protected space. The portable fire extinguisher shall be stowed adjacent to the port. Alternatively a port or hose connection may be provided to facilitate the use of fire main water. (SOLAS 2004 II-2/10.6.3.3)
Note: Evidence of satisfactory testing of the fire fighting systems and foam quality should be provided.
CO2 and other cylinders for fixed systems must usually be hydraulically tested after each 20 years of service, or prior to recharging a discharged cylinder, but some Administrations may require more frequent testing – for example Malta requires over a maximum period of 10 years 50% of the cylinders must be tested. The hydrostatic test date must be stamped on the cylinder.
Administrations and class societies require the contents of the cylinders of fixed CO2 systems to be verified by weight or isotropic measurement every two years.

5.68 Is the emergency fire pump in full operational condition and are starting instructions clearly displayed?

For ships constructed on or after 1st February 1992, the total suction head and the net positive suction head of the pump shall be determined having due regard to the requirements of the Convention. And this chapter (FSS) on the pump capacity and on the hydrant pressure under all conditions of list, trim, roll and pitch likely to be encountered in service. The ballast condition of a ship on entering or leaving a dry dock need not be considered a service condition. (SOLAS 1974 II-2/4.3.3.2.5 and FSS Code 12.2.2.1.3)
Any service fuel tank shall contain sufficient fuel to enable the pump to run on full load for at least 3 hours and sufficient reserves of fuel shall be available outside the main machinery space of Category A to enable the pump to be run on full load for an additional 15 hours. (SOLAS 1974 II-2/4.3.3.2.4 and FSS Code 12.2.2.2.2)
Every oil fuel pipe, which, if damaged, would allow oil to escape from a storage, settling or daily service tank situated above the double bottom, shall be fitted with a cock or valve directly on the tank capable of being closed from a safe position outside the space concerned in the event of a fire occurring in the space in which such tanks are situated. (SOLAS 74 II-2/15.2.5)
Oil fuel pipes, which if damaged would allow oil to escape from a storage, settling or daily service tank having a capacity of 500 litres and above situated above the double bottom, shall be fitted with a cock or valve directly on the tank capable of being closed from a safe position outside the space concerned in the event of a fire occurring in the space in which such the tanks are situated. (SOLAS 2004 II-2/4.2.2.3.4)
Notes: Consistent with safety and without interfering with the vessel’s operations, request to witness the starting and operation of the emergency fire pump.
If a priming system has been fitted to the emergency fire pump, it must be class approved.

5.69 Are portable fire extinguishers in good order with operating instructions clearly marked?

Each extinguisher should be clearly marked with the following minimum information:
Name of the manufacturer;
Type of fire for which the extinguisher is suitable;
Type and quantity of extinguishing medium;
Approval details;
Instructions for use and recharge (it is recommended that operating instructions be given in pictorial form);
Year of manufacture;
Temperature range over which the extinguisher will operate satisfactorily; and
Test pressure. (FSS Code 4 and Res. A.602)
One of the portable fire extinguishers intended for use in any space shall be stowed near the entrance to that space. (SOLAS 2004 II-2/10.3.2.2)
For vessels constructed after 1st July 2002, spare charges shall be provided for 100% of the first ten extinguishers and 50% of the remaining fire extinguishers capable of being recharged on board. Not more than sixty total spare charges are required. Instructions for recharging shall be carried on board. (SOLAS 2004 II-2/10.3.3.1)
For fire extinguishers which cannot be recharged on board, additional portable fire extinguishers of the same quantity, type, capacity, and number shall be provided in lieu of spare charges. (SOLAS 2004 II-2/10.3.3.2)
For vessels constructed before 1st July 2002, spare charges shall be provided in accordance with requirements specified by the Administration. (SOLAS 1974 II-2/6.2)
Note: Portable fire extinguishers must be hydrostatically tested every 10 years or lesser period if so required by the Administration. The date of the hydrostatic test must be stamped on the cylinder.
CO2 and other cylinders for fixed systems must usually be hydraulically tested after each 20 years of service, or prior to recharging a discharged cylinder, but some Administrations may require more frequent testing – for example Malta requires over a maximum period of 10 years 50% of the cylinders must be tested. The hydrostatic test date must be stamped on the cylinder.
Administrations and class societies require the contents of the cylinders of fixed CO2 systems to be verified by weight or isotropic measurement every two years.

5.70 Are firemen's outfits and breathing apparatus in good order and ready for immediate use?

Tankers shall carry four firemen’s outfits, which shall consist of:
Protective clothing of material to protect the skin from the heat radiating from the fire and from burns and scalding by steam. The outer surface shall be water-resistant;
Boots of rubber or other electrically non-conducting material;
A rigid helmet providing effective protection against impact;
An electric safety lamp of an approved type with a burning period of 3 hours. Safety lamps on tankers and those intended to be used in hazardous areas shall be of an explosion-proof type;
An axe with a handle provided with high-voltage insulation;
A breathing apparatus of an approved type; and
For each breathing apparatus a fireproof line of at least 30 metres in length, capable of being attached by means of a snap-hook to the harness of the apparatus or to a separate belt in order to prevent the breathing apparatus becoming detached when the lifeline is operated.
(SOLAS 1974 II-2/17, SOLAS 2004 II-2/10.10 and FSS Code 3/2.1.1)
A number of spare charges, suitable for use with the apparatus provided, shall be available on board to the satisfaction of the Administration. (SOLAS 74 II-2/17.1.2.2)
Two spare charges shall be provided for each required breathing apparatus……cargo ships that are equipped with suitably located means for fully recharging the air cylinders free from contamination need carry only one spare charge for each required apparatus. (SOLAS 2004 II-2/10.10.2.5)
For vessels constructed before 1st July 2002, the breathing apparatus may be either a smoke helmet type, or a self-contained compressed air type. A number of spare charges suitable for use with the apparatus provided shall be available on board to the satisfaction of the Administration. (SOLAS 1974 II-2/17.1.2)
The outfits shall be kept ready for use in an easily accessible location that is permanently and clearly marked and, they shall be stored in widely separated positions. (SOLAS 1974 II-2/17.4 and SOLAS 2004 II-2/10.3.1)
Notes: Although SOLAS recommends ‘widely separated positions’, fire-fighting training advocates that breathing apparatus should be used by personnel in pairs.
Self-contained breathing apparatus should be checked for condition and satisfactory operation. With the apparatus charged and the cylinder valve closed, the drop in pressure should not be more than10 bars in one minute. (Manufacturer’s instructions)

5.71 Are breathing apparatus sets fitted with fully pressurised air cylinders?

Annual inspections should be carried out to ensure that the air quality of breathing apparatus air recharging systems is satisfactory. (MSC/Circ. 850)
Breathing apparatus shall be a self-contained compressed air-operated breathing apparatus for which the volume of air contained in the cylinders shall be at least 1,200 ltrs, or other self-contained breathing apparatus which shall be capable of functioning for at least 30 min. All air cylinders for breathing apparatus shall be interchangeable. (FSS Code 3.2.1.2)
Notes: Air cylinders should be charged to not less than 10% below full. BA air cylinders should be hydrostatically tested every 5 years or lesser period if so recommended by the manufacturer. (4-Year testing intervals are customary for some composite wound cylinders.) The hydrostatic test date must be stamped on the cylinder.

5.72 Are emergency escape breathing devices (EEBD’s) in the accommodation, pump room and engine room in good order and ready for immediate use?

All ships shall carry at least two emergency escape breathing devices within accommodation spaces.
(SOLAS II-2/13.3.4.2)
On all ships, within the machinery spaces, emergency escape breathing devices shall be situated ready for use at easily visible places, which can be reached quickly and easily at any time in event of fire. The location of EEBD’s shall take into account the layout of the machinery space and the number of persons normally working in the spaces. (SOLAS II-2/13.4.3.1)
Spare emergency escape breathing devices shall be kept on board. (SOLAS II-2/13.3.4.1)
Training in the use of the EEBD should be considered a part of basic safety training. (MSC/Circ. 849)
Note: The requirements for EEBD’s are contained in Chapter 3/2.2 of the FSS Code and MSC/Circ. 849 and among other measures or definitions, stipulate:
An EEBD is a supplied air or oxygen device only used for escape from a compartment that has a hazardous atmosphere and shall be of an approved type.
EEBDs shall not be used for fighting fires, entering oxygen deficient voids or tanks, or worn by fire fighters. In these events, a self-contained breathing apparatus, which is specifically suited for such applications, shall be used.
The EEBD shall have a service duration of at least 10 min.
The EEBD shall include a hood or full face piece, as appropriate, to protect the eyes, nose and mouth during escape. Hoods and face pieces shall be constructed of flame-resistant materials and include a clear window for viewing.
An inactivated EEBD shall be capable of being carried hands-free.
An EEBD, when stored, shall be suitably protected from the environment.
Brief instructions or diagrams clearly illustrating their use shall be clearly printed on the EEBD. The donning procedures shall be quick and easy to allow for situations where there is little time to seek safety from a hazardous atmosphere.
Maintenance requirement, manufacturer's trademark and serial number, shelf life with accompanying manufacture date and name of the approving authority shall be printed on each EEBD.
All EEBD training units shall be clearly marked.

5.73 Are accommodation and ventilation fan emergency stops in good order and clearly marked to indicate the spaces they serve?

5.74 Are fire flaps in good order and clearly marked to indicate the spaces they serve?

Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)

5.75 Are Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) on board for all the cargo products being handled and are all officers familiar with their use?

Ships carrying MARPOL Annex I cargoes, as defined in Appendix I to Annex I of the Protocol of 1978 relating to the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973, and marine fuel oils shall be provided with a material safety data sheet prior to the loading of such cargoes. (SOLAS VI/ 5-1)
On ships carrying MARPOL Annex II cargoes, Prior to loading, the shipper should provide both to the Master and the Company, as defined in the ISM Code, a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS), formatted in accordance with MSC/Circ. 150(77), for cargoes containing benzene. (IBC Appendix 8 Annex)

5.76 Have Material Data Safety Sheets been provided for the bunkers currently on board?

The provisions of SOLAS VI/5-1 stand to indicate that, notwithstanding the provisions of SOLAS VI/1, ships carrying oil or oil fuel, as defined in Reg 1 of Annex I to the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973, as modified by the Protocol of 1978 relating thereto, shall be provided with Material Safety Data Sheets, based on the recommendations developed by the Organisation, prior to the loading of such oil as cargo in bulk or bunkering of oil fuel. (MSC.1/Circ. 1303)

5.77 Are chemicals properly stowed and are Material Safety Data Sheets available?

Note: Boiler treatment chemicals and other chemicals carried in packaged form shall be properly stowed to prevent uncontrolled movement and must be provided with MSDS. Protective equipment including a face shield, apron, gloves, and an eye-wash should be provided at the place where chemicals are stored. Personnel who handle the materials in question must be aware as to the purpose of the MSDS and be able to demonstrate familiarity with it.

5.78 Are Material Safety Data Sheets provided for paints, protective coatings and all other corrosive or toxic materials that are carried on board?

Note: Paints, protective coatings and all other corrosive or toxic materials that are carried on board shall be properly stowed to prevent uncontrolled movement and must be provided with MSDS. Protective equipment including a face shield, apron, gloves and an eye-wash should be provided at the place where paints, protective coatings and all other corrosive or toxic materials are stored.
The MSDS may be printed on the container. If it is not, then the MSDS data must be prominently posted or readily available to the user. Personnel who handle the materials in question must be aware as to the purpose of the MSDS and be able to demonstrate familiarity with it.

Access:

5.79 Is a gangway provided?

A ship’s gangway consists of a straight, lightweight bridging structure provided with side stanchions and handrails. The walking surface has a non-slip surface or transverse bars to provide foot grips for when it is inclined. It is rigged perpendicular to the ship's side and spans between the ship's rail and the working deck of the berth. (ISGOTT 16.4.3.2)

5.80 Are accommodation ladders, gangways, pilot ladders and pilot hoists, where fitted, in good order?

Means of embarkation on and disembarkation from ships.
Ships constructed on or after 1st January 2010 shall be provided with means of embarkation on and disembarkation from ships for use in port and in port related operations, such as gangways and accommodation ladders, in accordance with paragraph 2;
The means of embarkation and disembarkation required in paragraph 1 shall be constructed and installed based on the guidelines developed by the Organisation. (MSC.1/Circ. 1196) (SOLAS II-1/3-9)
Marking:
Each accommodation ladder or gangway should be clearly marked at each end with a plate showing the restrictions on the safe operation and loading, including the maximum and minimum permitted design angles of inclination, design load, maximum load on bottom end plate, etc. Where the maximum operational load is less than the design load, it should also be shown on the marking plate. (MSC.1/Circ. 1331/3.5)
Each gangway or accommodation ladder should be clearly marked at each end with a plate visible by a person before entering that end of the ladder, which shows restrictions on the safe operation and loading the ladder including maximum permitted design angle of inclination, design loading, maximum load on bottom end plate, etc. Where the maximum operational loading is less than the design loading, the maximum operational loading should also be shown on the marking plate. (MSC 84/3.5.1)
Additional information, which need not be included in the marking required by paragraph 3.5.1 but should be shown in the ship’s planned maintenance records, should include the date of the most recent inspection, the name of the person or body who carried out that inspection, due date for the next inspection and dates of renewal of wires used to support the boarding arrangement. (MSC 84/3.5.2)
Gangways should not be used at an angle of inclination greater than 300 from the horizontal unless designed and constructed for use at angles greater than these and marked as such as specified in paragraph 3.5.1.
(MSC 84/4.1.1)
Accommodation ladders should not be used at an angle of inclination greater than 550 from the horizontal unless designed and constructed for use at angles greater than these and marked as such as specified in paragraph 3.5.1. (MSC 84/4.1.1)

5.81 Are all means of access satisfactory, including the provision of a safety net, lifebuoy and line?

Safety nets are not required if the gangway is fixed to the shore and provided with a permanent system of handrails made of structural members. For other types of gangways, and those fitted with rope or chain handrails or removable posts, correctly rigged safety nets should be provided. (ISGOTT 16.4.5)
Notes: Safety nets should be provided wherever there is a possibility of a person falling over or through the side rails of the gangway and should be rigged to prevent anyone falling between the ship and quay. Where the rails provide adequate protection, a safety net might not be necessary.
Regardless of whether the gangway is supplied by ship or shore, it is the ship’s responsibility to ensure that a safety net is rigged.
If the means of access are considered to be unsafe, then the inspector must not put him/herself at risk by going on board.

5.82 Are pilot boarding and access arrangements satisfactory?

In all ships where the distance from sea level to the point of access to, or egress from, the ship exceeds 9 metres and where it is intended to embark and disembark pilots by means of the accommodation ladder, or by means of mechanical pilot hoists or other equally safe and convenient means in conjunction with a pilot ladder, the ship shall carry such equipment on each side, unless the equipment is capable of being transferred for use on either side. (SOLAS V/23.3.2)
Where the distance from the surface of the water to the point of access to the ship is more than 9m, the accommodation ladder in conjunction with a pilot ladder shall be used. The accommodation ladder shall lead aft and the lower end shall rest firmly against the ship’s side within the parallel body length of the ship and clear of all discharges. (SOLAS V/23.3.3.2)
Means shall be provided to ensure safe, convenient and unobstructed passage for any person embarking on, or disembarking from, the ship between the head of the pilot or accommodation ladder and the deck.
(SOLAS V/23.4)
Adequate lighting shall be provided to illuminate the transfer arrangements overside, the position on deck where a person embarks or disembarks and the controls of the mechanical pilot hoist. (SOLAS V/23.8)

5.83 Are safe access to the bow arrangements satisfactory?

Every petroleum, chemical and gas tanker shall be provided with the means to enable the crew to gain safe access to the bow even in severe weather conditions. (SOLAS II-1/3-3)


Note: The requirements for safe access to the bow are contained in MSC/Circ. 62(67).

5.84 If a helicopter landing or winching area is provided, does it meet ICS guidelines?

Landing Area: defined as an operating area suitable for landing helicopters. The landing area may consist of a purpose built structure located above the ship's deck (referred to as a ‘purpose built landing area’) or a non purpose built area located on the ship's deck (referred to as a ‘non purpose built landing area’). The landing area may also be used for winching operations provided that the winching criteria described below can be satisfied. However, where a landing area with adequate size and obstacle clearance for the helicopter in question is provided, landing is always the preferred option.
Winching Area: defined as an operating area which may only be used for winching operations. The optimum position for a landing or winching area will normally be determined by the availability of a suitable space on the ship. However, where there is more than one area identified and capable of accommodating the type of helicopter(s) expected to be used, the ship's Master, in consultation with the helicopter operator, should assess the merits of each location, taking particular account of the size and position of obstacles and expected aerodynamic and ship motion effects. (ICS Guide to Helicopter/Ship Operations 4.1.1)
Generally, it is not recommended to locate the winching area near the bow of the ship. In addition, it should not be located on the bridge wing in the absence of a thorough risk assessment acceptable to the ship's Master and the helicopter operator. The winching area should, if possible, be clear of accommodation spaces and provide adequate deck area adjacent to the manoeuvring zone where personnel can muster, and provide for safe access to the area from different directions. In selecting a winching area, the desirability of keeping the winching height to a minimum should also be borne in mind.
(ICS Guide to Helicopter/Ship Operations 4.4.1)
Notes: Landing Area at the Ship's Side: A non purpose built landing area located on a ship's side should consist of a ‘clear zone’ and a ‘manoeuvring zone’ A diagram showing the general arrangements is set out in the ICS Guide Figure 4.1, page 22, while the details of the landing area markings are described more fully in Section 4.3.2 of the Guide.
Winching Area at the Ship’s Side: Where it is impractical to provide a landing area for helicopters it may be possible to provide an operating area capable of supporting winching operations only. A winching area should consist of a ‘clear zone’ and a ‘manoeuvring zone.’ A diagram showing the general arrangements are set out in the ICS Guide Figure 4.4, page 25, while the details of the winching area are described more fully in Section 4.4.3 of the Guide.
In close proximity to the helicopter landing area, the following fire fighting appliances should be provided:
One or two dry powder extinguishers with a total capacity of not less than 45 kg;
One or two extinguishers with a total capacity of not less than 18 kg;
A foam system, the discharge rate of foam of which varied according to the helicopter length;
At least two fire hoses with jet/spray nozzles sufficient to reach any part of the helicopter operating area;
At least two complete fire fighter’s outfits. (Guide to helicopter/ship operations 4.7)
As a minimum, the following equipment, ready for immediate use and stored in a manner that provides for protection from the elements:
Red emergency signalling lamp;
Large axe;
Crowbar;
Adjustable wrench;
Fire resistant blanket;
60 cm bolt/wire cutters;
Grab or salving hook;
Heavy duty hacksaw, complete with 6 spare blades;
Ladder;
Lifeline, 5mm diameter by 15 metres in length;
Side cutting pliers;
Set of assorted screwdrivers;
Harness knife complete with sheath
First aid kit. (Guide to helicopter/ship operations 4.7)
(Guide to helicopter/ship operations 4.7)

5.85 If the bridge wing is used as a winching area, is a thorough risk assessment conducted?

The bridge wing will never be the ideal location for a winching area. However, there may be circumstances where there is no practical alternative to use of the bridge wing, and in such cases a thorough risk assessment of the operation must be conducted. Only if the results are acceptable to, and approved by, both the ship's Master and the helicopter operator should winching to the ship's bridge wing be permitted.
(ICS Guide to Helicopter/Ship Operations 4.2.2)
Note: The ICS Guide, Appendix H contains guidance to the conduct of a bridge wing risk assessment.

Chapter 6. Pollution Prevention
Oil Record Books:

6.1 Are the Engine Room (Part I) and Cargo (Part II) Oil Record Books (ORBs) correctly completed?

Notes: The IOPP Form B (2.2.2) indicates whether a vessel is fitted with a 15 ppm oily water separator and 15 ppm oil content meter fitted with an alarm and automatic stopping device. Discharge of bilges or transfer from a bilge holding tank to overboard through this equipment should be recorded in section D of the ORB. Section E should be used ONLY in cases where automatic starting systems that are activated by float switches in bilge wells or bilge holding tanks. Such systems are rarely encountered on oil tankers.
Transfer from bilge wells to the bilge holding tank must also be recorded under section D 15.3. Where a voluntary declaration of quantities retained on board in oily bilge water holding tanks is entered in the Oil Record Book, Part I, the entry should be made under Code (I) (Additional operational procedures and general remarks); and the heating of oil residue (sludge) as a method of reducing its volume by evaporation should be recorded in the Oil Record Book, Part I, under Code (C) (Collection, transfer and disposal of oil residues (sludge)), paragraph 12.4. (MEPC.1/Circ.640)
Guidance on the completion of the Oil Record Book Part 1 can be found in MEPC.1/Circ. 736.

6.2 Do the sludge and bilge tanks designated in Form B of the IOPP Certificate and those listed in the Oil Record Book Part I, agree?

Notes: Details of bilge and sludge tanks can be obtained from Form A or B of the IOPP Certificate, although the recording of bilge tanks (section 3.3) is not a MARPOL requirement and is therefore voluntary. Notwithstanding the foregoing, if an engine room bilge tank is used for the purposes of holding engine room residues, this tank and details of its contents must be recorded in the Oil Record Book Part 1.
In Part 1, Section C should be used for the disposal of sludge and other oil residues such as drainage, leakage, exhausted oil etc. and this section should be completed weekly. Section D (Non-Automatic Discharge) should be compiled for the disposal of bilge water as and when it occurs. Masters should obtain from the operator of the reception facilities, which includes barges and tank trucks, a receipt or certificate detailing the quantity of tank washings, dirty ballast, residues or oily mixtures transferred, together with the time and date of the transfer. This receipt or certificate, if attached to the Oil Record Book Part I, may aid the Master of the ship in proving that his ship was not involved in an alleged pollution incident. The receipt or certificate should be kept together with the Oil Record Book Part I.
Where a voluntary declaration of quantities retained on board in oil bilge water holding tanks is entered in the Oil Record Book, Part I, the entry should be made under code (I) (MEPC.1/Circ.640)
MIN no. 9 - Amendments to, and Completion of, Oil Record Books contains detailed instructions on the completion of Oil Record Books. Its requirements MUST be complied with.

6.3 Are the Oil Record Books free of any pollution incidents or violations?

6.4 Have disposals of slops and dirty ballast been adequately recorded and were they in accordance with MARPOL?

6.5 If the disposal of engine room oily water or sludge to a cargo or slop tank has taken place, has the event been recorded in both Oil Record Books, was the receiving tank free of cargo and have the transfer arrangements been approved by Class?

Shipboard Oil and Marine Pollution Emergency Plans:

6.6 Is an approved MARPOL Shipboard Oil Pollution Emergency Plan (SOPEP) or Shipboard Marine Pollution Emergency Plan (SMPEP) provided?

Every oil tanker of 150 gt and above and every ship other than an oil tanker of 400 gt and above shall carry on board a shipboard oil pollution emergency plan approved by the Administration. (MARPOL Annex I/37)
The plan shall be written in the working language of the Master and officers and shall at least consist of:
The procedure to be followed by the Master or other persons having charge of the ship to report an oil pollution incident;
The list of authorities or persons to be contacted in the event of an oil pollution incident;
A detailed description of the action to be taken immediately by persons on board to reduce or control the discharge of oil following the incident; and
The procedures and point of contact on the ship for co-ordinating shipboard action with national and local authorities in combating the pollution. (MARPOL Annex I/37.2)
Every ship of 150 gt and above certified to carry noxious liquid substances in bulk shall carry on board a shipboard marine pollution emergency plan for noxious liquid substances approved by the Administration.
(MARPOL Annex II/17)
The plan shall be written in a working language or languages understood by the Master and officers and shall at least consist of:
The procedure to be followed by the Master or other persons having charge of the ship to report a noxious liquid substances pollution incident;
The list of authorities or persons to be contacted in the event of a noxious liquid substance pollution incident;
A detailed description of the action to be taken immediately by persons on board to reduce or control the discharge of noxious liquid substances following the incident; and
The procedures and point of contact on the ship for co-ordinating shipboard action with national and local authorities in combating the pollution. (MARPOL Annex II/17.2)
In the case of ships to which Regulation 17 of Annex II of the present Convention also applies, such a plan may be combined with the Shipboard Marine Pollution Emergency Plan for noxious liquid substances required under Regulation 17 of Annex II of the present Convention. In this case, the title of such a plan shall be ‘Shipboard Marine Pollution Emergency Plan’. (MARPOL Annex I/37.3 and Annex II/17)
Note: The plan is subject to re-approval after a change of management.
Vessels transiting the Panama Canal are required to have an approved Panama Canal SOPEP.

6.7 Does the plan include a description of equipment, its location, a plan for deployment and specific crewmember duties for handling small spills?

6.8 Is the IMO Coastal Contact List up to date, is the Master aware of port contact procedures and has a contact list been made for this port?

Notes: The IMO Coastal Contact List is published on 31st December and updated on 31st March, 30th June and 30th September each year. This information is published on the IMO web site at www.imo.org. Inspectors must ensure that the current update to the IMO Coastal Contact List has actually been published and sufficient time allowed for the document to be received on board prior to making an Observation.
A list of specific contact numbers should be prepared for the port and be readily available to the Master and displayed in the cargo control room. The list should at least include the contact numbers for the DPA (or the operator’s emergency contact details); the port authorities, the P and I Club, the agent and the national pollution reporting centre from the Coastal Contact List.

6.9 Is there a USCG approved Vessel Response Plan (VRP)?

Note: A VRP must be provided for oil and chemical tankers trading to the USA. SOPEP's, SMPEP's and VRP's can be either in a single combined plan or in separate documents.

6.10 Name of the OPA-90 Qualified Individual (QI):

Note: The name of the OPA-90 qualified individual must be recorded in the VRP.

Cargo Operations and Deck Area Pollution Prevention:

6.11 Are officers aware of the requirements of MARPOL with respect to the disposal of bilge water and cargo slops?

Note: Under MARPOL Annex II the only Special Area applicable to chemical tankers is the Antarctic south of 600 south. (Annex II Appendix 4/1.3 and 4.4.3)

6.12 Is the condition of scupper plugs satisfactory and are scuppers effectively plugged?

Note: Scuppers on gas carriers will only be required to be plugged when bunkering or if carrying a MARPOL Annex 1 cargo.
Wooden scupper plugs used solely on their own will not be able to provide a satisfactory seal for pollution prevention.

6.12 Is the condition of scupper plugs satisfactory and are scuppers effectively plugged?

Note: Scuppers on gas carriers will only be required to be plugged when bunkering or if carrying a MARPOL Annex 1 cargo.
Wooden scupper plugs used solely on their own will not be able to provide a satisfactory seal for pollution prevention.

6.13 Is the ship fitted with a maindeck boundary coaming?

Means shall be provided to keep deck spills away from the accommodation and service areas. This may be accomplished by means of a permanent continuous coaming of a height of at least 300mm, extending from side to side. Special consideration shall be given to the arrangements associated with stern loading.
(SOLAS II-2/4.5.1.6)
Continuous coaming of suitable height shall be fitted to keep any spills on deck and away from the accommodation and service areas. (IBC 3.7.7)
Notes: A secondary purpose of this coaming is to provide oil retention at the after end of the maindeck in the event of an oil spill, giving the crew sufficient time to deal with it and avoid oil entering the water.
The effectiveness of the height of the boundary coaming can only be decided when it is related to the volume that can be retained with respect to the trim and the camber of the deck.
This question does not apply to vessels which only carry LPG or LNG cargoes.

6.14 Are means readily available for dealing with small oil spills?

Notes: Means should be provided for the prompt removal of any spillage on deck. Spill equipment should be readily available at the manifold and there should be an adequate method (spill pumps or dumping arrangements to a cargo tank or other equally effective means) for the rapid disposal of oil at the aft end of the main deck on both sides of the vessel.
If the use of a cargo tank or slop tank is not a viable option, an alternative enclosed container with a capacity of at least 2 m3 should be available for the disposal of spills and oily water from the deck.
Portable spill pumps should be bonded to the vessel’s structure to prevent electrical discharge to earth. Bonding may be made by external means, or by the discharge hose, if this is attached by means of a flanged connection to the vessel’s structure. Pumps should also be mounted to prevent movement and subsequent damage during operation.
Where portable spill pumps are provided and the discharge is led to a cargo tank, there should be a suitable fixed connection. Disposal of a spill should not require the insertion of the spill pump discharge hose through a tank opening such as a sighting port.
Where dump valves are installed at the after end of the maindeck, ascertain whether opening the valves will actually result in the disposal of spilled oil to the tank. Excessive cargo tank vapour pressure can result in a release of pressure when the dump valve is opened, thereby aggravating the situation. U bends fitted in the dumping line to the tank may allow spills to be safely disposed of without first having to depressurise the tank, but this depends on the liquid level in the U-bend being adequate to prevent back-flow of vapour. The ullage of the cargo in the tank may also affect the ability to drain spills from the deck, particularly when the tank is full and the vessel is trimmed by the stern.
If effective draining of a spill cannot be achieved or if pressure release is required, an alternative method of immediately disposing of a spill should be provided.
It should be recognised that if the vessel is sagged a spill will accumulate amidships and if trimmed by the head then it will accumulate forward. The positioning of spill equipment and disposal equipment must take these conditions into account.

6.15 Is the vessel free from any visible bulkhead, valve or pipeline leakage liable to cause pollution?

6.16 Are cargo system sea and overboard valves suitably lashed, locked or blanked and are they thoroughly checked to ensure that they are fully closed prior to commencement of cargo transfer?

At the start of loading and at regular intervals throughout loading, discharging, ballasting and tank washing, a watch should be kept to ensure that oil is not escaping through sea valves.
Sea and overboard discharge valves connected to the cargo and ballast systems must be securely closed and lashed and may be sealed when not in use. In line blanks should be inserted where provided. When lashing is not practical, as with hydraulic valves, some suitable means of marking should be used to indicate clearly that the valves are to remain closed.
For further information on this subject, reference should be made to the ICS/OCIMF publication Prevention of Oil Spillages through Cargo Pump Room Sea Valves. (ISGOTT 24.7.2)
Notes: Records of such checks should be recorded in the Deck or Cargo Log Book. Anti-pollution warning notices should be posted in the vicinity of these valves.

6.17 If cargo sea suction valves are fitted, are adequate pollution prevention measures in place?

Note: Two valves should be fitted at cargo sea suctions, unless the sea suctions are blanked or a spool piece to the cargo system has been removed.

6.18 If cargo sea suction valves are fitted, are valve-testing arrangements provided, are they in good order and regularly monitored for leakage?

It is recommended that a device be installed to monitor pressure build-up and determine liquid make-up in the section of the pipeline which lies between the inboard and outboard sea valves. Such a device would both provide an early indication of leakage through either valve during cargo handling operations and enable the leaking valve to be identified. During cargo operations pressure build-up in this line would be apparent from the gauge reading and would indicate that one of the valves was leaking.
(OCIMF Cargo Pump Room Sea Valves 4)
Devices should be positioned so that both readings and samples can be taken from a point far enough above the pump room lower platform level that there is no possibility of human exposure to gas concentrations which may accumulate below the floor plates. (OCIMF Cargo Pump Room Sea Valves 4)
The use of a pressure/vacuum gauge, rather than a pressure-only gauge, is preferable in that it will provide a reliable indication of a vacuum in the line prior to opening the sea valve for ballasting.
(OCIMF Cargo Pump Room Sea Valves 4)
Note: Care should be taken that test pressures do not exceed 3.5.kg/cm2.

6.19 If ballast lines pass through cargo tanks are they tested regularly and the results recorded?

6.20 Are oil spill containers and gratings in place under the cargo manifolds and are they in good order?

A permanently fitted spill tank, provided with suitable means of draining, should be fitted under all ship and shore manifold connections. If no permanent means are fitted, portable drip trays should be placed under each connection to retain any leakage. The use of plastic should be avoided unless provision for bonding is made. (ISGOTT 24.7.4)

6.21 Are manifold spill containers empty and are the drainage arrangements satisfactory?

Note: Suitable means of draining the spill container to a cargo tank or spill tank should be provided.

6.22 Are unused cargo and bunker pipeline manifolds fully bolted and are all drains and vents and unused gauge stems, suitably blanked or capped?

All ship’s cargo and bunker pipelines not in use must be securely blanked at the manifold. The stern cargo pipelines should be isolated from the tanker’s main pipeline system forward of the aft accommodation by blanking or by the removal of a spool piece. (ISGOTT 24.7.5)
Notes: This includes all pipelines and fittings which are in use or which might become pressurised during cargo operations, on both sides of the vessel.
Blanks should be fully bolted. Drains and vents should be fitted with valves and either capped or plugged. Pressure gauge stems should be fitted with valves and capped whenever gauges are not fitted.

6.23 Are suitable spill containers fitted around all fuel, diesel and lubricating oil tank vents?

Notes: The height of any savealls around bunker tank vents should not be greater than the vent heads themselves, because this could lead to the ingress of water in bad weather if the savealls become filled with water.
Containers should be empty of water and free of oil.
Drain plugs should be in place in port.
Normally the air inlet/outlet of a vent is at the top of the vent head because the closing device is a float or ball which floats when immersed in water, thus closing the aperture. Therefore the height of a saveall can come to about half way up the vent head without ingress of water being an issue.

6.24 Is a suitable containment fitted around hydraulic and other deck machinery?

6.25 Are the arrangements for the disposal of oily water in the foc's'le and other internal spaces adequate?

Note: Where there is a possibility of hydraulic, fuel or other oil accumulating in internal space bilge wells, adequate arrangements should be in place for its disposal. Where hand pumps or ejectors are fitted, pollution prevention notices should be posted and the overboard valves should be secured against accidental opening.

Pump Rooms and Oil Discharge Monitors:

6.26 Are pump room bilge high level alarms fitted, regularly tested and the results recorded?

All pump rooms on all tankers constructed on or after 1st July 2002 shall be provided with bilge level monitoring devices together with appropriately located alarms. (SOLAS II-2/4.5.10.1.4)
Notes: The pump room bilge high-level alarm must be sited at a low point in the pump room bilge in order to be effective.

6.27 Are adequate arrangements provided for pipeline draining and the disposal of pump room bilge accumulations?

Notes: On some tankers, no provision is made for effective line draining and, in order to meet the demands of certain product trades, final line contents are drained to the pump room bilge. This is an unsafe practice and it is recommended that cargo procedures be reviewed with the aim of preventing a volatile product being drained to the bilge. Means should be available to have the drainage system operated from outside the pump room, at least from the upper deck.
Where lines that have been used for ballast have to be drained to the pump room bilge on completion of deballasting, care must be taken to ensure that such drainings do not contain petroleum. (ISGOTT 10.11.2)

6.28 If an ODME is fitted, is it in good order and is there evidence of recent testing?

Oil content may be calculated by the formula:
Oil content ppm x Flowrate m3/hr / Ships speed in knots x 1000 = litres per nautical mile

6.29 If the ODME has not been operational, was the fact recorded in the Oil Record Book?

If the ODME is not currently operational, record with the Observation how long it has been out of order and what remedial action is intended.
Note: The date and time when the failure occurred and the date and time when the system was made operational again, together with the reason for the failure should be recorded in the Oil Record Book.

Ballast Water Management:

6.30 Does the operator have a Class approved Ballast Water and Sediments Management Plan and are records being maintained of all ballast water exchanges?

Notes: The International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments is a new international convention to help prevent the spread of harmful aquatic organisms carried by ships' ballast water, and will require all ships to implement a Ballast Water and Sediments Management Plan. Some countries are introducing specific requirements for ballast water management and reporting, within their national limits, prior to the Convention coming into force.
The IMO has published Guidelines for the Control and Management of Ships Ballast Water to Minimise the Transfer of Harmful Aquatic Organisms and Pathogens. (Res. A.868 (20))
All vessels will be required to practise ballast water management on all voyages and must comply with the following standards in accordance with the time table as follows:
A Ballast water exchange (sequential or flow through method); or
B Use of an approved ballast water treatment system.
Vessels constructed before 2009:
Vessels with a ballast water capacity of between 1,500 m3 and 5,000 m3 are to comply either with A or B until 2014 after which they must comply with B;
Vessels with a ballast water capacity of less than 1,500 m3 or greater than 5,000 m3 are to comply with A or B until 2016 after which they must comply with B;
Vessels are to comply by the first intermediate or renewal survey, which ever comes first, after the anniversary date of delivery.
Vessels constructed during or after 2009:
Vessels with a ballast water capacity of less than 5,00 m3 are to comply with B;
Vessels with a ballast water capacity of 5,000 m3 or more are to comply either with A or B until 2016 after which they must comply with B;
Vessels with a ballast water capacity of 5,000 m3 or more are to comply with B.
Ballast water exchange is to be undertaken 200 nautical miles or more from the nearest coast and in water of 200 metres or more in depth. If this is not possible ships will be permitted to undertake ballast water exchange 50 nautical miles or more from the nearest coats and in water of 200 metres or more in depth.
All vessels will be required to have onboard an approved ballast water management plan and a ballast water management record book. The record may be combined with another record book and may be electronic.
All vessels of 400 gross tons and above will require a ballast water management certificate which will be valid for 5 years following an initial survey. The continued validity of the certificate will be subject to annual and intermediate surveys.
(IMO International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships’ Ballast Water and Sediments)

6.31 Can the vessel check or sample segregated ballast prior to deballasting?

Notes: A sample of the ballast tanks should be visually checked for oil contamination on each occasion before being discharged.
It is not satisfactory if numerous bolts must be removed from manhole covers to check that ballast is free of oil. If this is the only means of checking, an Observation must be made.
In the case of gas carriers there is no possibility of oil contamination of the permanent ballast unless oil pipelines pass though the ballast tanks or the ballast tanks are adjacent to bunker tanks. Except in these cases, sampling of the ballast tanks is not required.
It is of particular importance that the segregated ballast is visually checked and the presence of any oil on the surface of ballast tanks is detected before the ballast is discharged overboard. A record must be entered in the Deck Log to indicate that all tanks have been checked and found oil-free before being discharged.

6.32 Are segregated ballast tanks free from evidence of oil?

Note: Additional to the requirements of Chapter 7 to check ballast tanks for structural and coating condition, the tanks should also be checked for oil contamination. Under no circumstances should an oil sheen be detected on the surface of ballast water.
In the case of gas carriers there is no possibility of oil contamination of the permanent ballast unless oil pipelines pass though the ballast tanks or the ballast tanks are adjacent to bunker tanks. Except in these cases, sampling of the ballast tanks is not required.

Engine and Steering Compartments:

6.33 Are the engine room bilge oily water pumping and disposal arrangements in good order?

A direct connection overboard from a bilge pump used for the regular disposal of accumulations of bilge water, or for any other oil service, must be recorded as an Observation.
At least two power pumps connected to the main bilge system shall be provided, one of which may be driven by the propulsion machinery. If the Administration is satisfied that the safety of the ship is not impaired, bilge pumping arrangements may be dispensed with in particular compartments. (SOLAS II-1/21.3)
Notes: Any system used to transfer bilge or oily water mixtures for retention on board or discharge to deck, must be provided with positive means to ensure that oil or oily mixtures are not discharged into the sea.
Ascertain that a direct overboard discharge is not being used for the disposal of daily machinery space bilge accumulations.
The ship's side valve and associated overboard pipework should be checked for evidence of oil contamination.

6.34 Are emergency bilge pumping arrangements ready for immediate use; is the emergency bilge suction clearly identified and, where fitted, is the emergency overboard discharge valve provided with a notice warning against accidental opening?

Regulations 15 and 34 (Control of the discharge of oil) of this Annex shall not apply to:
The discharge into the sea of oil or oily mixture necessary for the purpose of securing the safety of a ship or saving life at sea; or
The discharge into the sea of oil or oily mixture resulting from damage to a ship or its equipment:
2.1 Provided that all reasonable precautions have been taken after the occurrence of the damage or discovery of the discharge for the purpose of preventing or minimising the discharge; and
2.2 Except if the owner or the Master acted either with intent to cause damage, or recklessly and with knowledge that damage would probably result; or
The discharge into the sea of substances containing oil, approved by the Administration, when being used for the purpose of combating specific pollution incidents in order to minimise the damage from pollution. Any such discharge shall be subject to the approval of any Government in whose jurisdiction it is contemplated the discharge will occur. (MARPOL I/4)
Notes: SOLAS states that sanitary, ballast and general service pumps may be accepted as independent power bilge pumps where fitted with the necessary connections to the bilge pumping system. Although not specifically described as such, this SOLAS requirement is to permit bilges to be discharged overboard in an emergency situation and MARPOL I/4 above, allows for this.
The emergency bilge overboard discharge must not be used for the disposal of daily machinery space bilge accumulations. Inspection of the ship's side valve and associated overboard pipework should be checked for evidence of oil contamination.
In addition to the SOLAS requirement for two means of disposing of bilges, there is a class requirement for an additional emergency bilge disposal system and this will utilise a sea water pump and will discharge directly overboard. This emergency bilge suction valve should be readily accessible and clearly marked as to its purpose.
The means by which operation of the emergency overboard valve is controlled to prevent unauthorised discharge of oil or oily mixtures should be determined. Positive evidence that the overboard discharge valve has not been opened can be provided by use of a numbered seal, the number of which can be verified in official documents such as the Engine Room Log or the Oil Record Book Part I. Such a method of sealing must be easily breakable to allow the valve to be opened in an emergency.
If the vessel has an ejector as a substitute for one of the bilge pumps then it may be necessary to ensure that the suction valves are similarly sealed.

6.35 Are dedicated sludge pumps free from any connection to a direct overboard discharge?

Piping to and from sludge tanks shall have no direct connection overboard, other than the standard discharge connection referred to in Regulation 13. (MARPOL I/12.2)

6.36 Is the oily water separator in good order?

1. Except as specified in paragraph 3 of this regulation, any ship of 400 gross tonnage and above but less than 10,000 gross tonnage shall be fitted with oil filtering equipment complying with paragraph 6 of this regulation. Any such ship which may discharge into the sea ballast water retained in oil fuel tanks in accordance with Regulation 16.2 shall comply with paragraph 2 of this regulation.
2. Except as specified in paragraph 3 of this regulation, any ship of 10,000 gross tonnage and above shall be fitted with oil filtering equipment complying with paragraph 7 of this regulation.
6. Oil filtering equipment referred to in paragraph 1 of this regulation shall be of a design approved by the Administration and shall be such as will ensure that any oily mixture discharged into the sea after passing through the system has an oil content not exceeding 15 parts per million. In considering the design of such equipment, the Administration shall have regard to the specification recommended by the Organisation.
7. Oil filtering equipment referred to in paragraph 2 of this regulation shall comply with paragraph 6 of this regulation. In addition, it shall be provided with alarm arrangements to indicate when this level cannot be maintained. The system shall also be provided with arrangements to ensure that any discharge of oily mixtures is automatically stopped when the oil content of the effluent exceeds 15 parts per million. In considering the design of such equipment and approvals, the Administration shall have regard to the specification recommended by the Organisation. (MARPOL I/14)
Notes: The oily water separator will normally be supplied with its own supply pump (which may either pump or draw water through the separating unit).
Inspectors should confirm that the oily water separator piping has not been altered, physically by-passed or has been fitted with connections to by-pass the unit and it should be verified that that the sensing equipment has not been interfered with. A demonstration should be requested to determine how the oil content alarm is tested to prove satisfactory operation and familiarity of the crew with the equipment. Failure of Oil Filtering Equipment should be recorded in the Oil Record Book, Part I.
Oily water separators may not necessarily be fitted with a 3-way valve. On some types of equipment the discharge is automatically stopped if the 15 ppm limit is reached.

6.37 Are specific warning notices posted to safeguard against the accidental opening of the overboard discharge valve from the oily water separator?

Note: The overboard valve should be sealed and provided with a warning notice indicating that the valve should not be opened without the authority of the Chief Engineer or Master.

6.38 If the oily water separator is not fitted with an automatic stopping device, do entries in the Oil Record Book Part 1 indicate that it has not been used in a Special Area?

Notes: Section 2.2.2 of Form B of the IOPP Certificate will indicate whether or not the engine room oily water separator has been fitted with an approved automatic stopping device.
In vessels over 10,000 tons gross tonnage the oily water separator should be fitted with an alarm and an automatic device that will stop the discharge of any mixture above 15 ppm. If the oily water separator has not been fitted with an automatic stopping device, the inspector must ascertain that it has not been used within a Special Area.

6.39 Are the arrangements for the disposal of steering compartment oily bilge water adequate?

Note: Where hydraulic, fuel or other oil may accumulate in steering compartment bilge wells, adequate arrangements should be in place for the disposal of it. Where hand pumps or ejectors are fitted, there should be pollution prevention notices posted and the overboard valves should be secured against accidental opening.

Garbage Management:

6.40 Does the vessel have a Garbage Management Plan and has garbage been handled and disposed of in accordance with MARPOL?

Every ship of 400 gross tonnage and above, and every ship which is certified to carry 15 persons or more, shall carry a Garbage Management Plan which the crew shall follow. (MARPOL V/9.2)
To ensure that the most effective and efficient handling and storage procedures are followed, it is recommended that vessel operators develop waste management plans that can be incorporated into crew and vessel operating manuals. Such manuals should identify crew responsibilities (including an environmental control officer) and procedures for all aspects of handling and storing garbage aboard the ship. Procedures for handling ship-generated garbage can be divided into four phases: collection, processing, storage, and disposal. (Guidelines for the Implementation of MARPOL V 2006)
Every ship shall display placards which notify the crew of the disposal requirements of garbage.
(MARPOL V/9.1.a)
The placards shall be written in the working language of the ship's personnel and, for ships engaged in voyages to ports or offshore terminals under the jurisdiction of other Parties to the Convention, shall also be in English, French, or Spanish. (MARPOL V/9.1.b)
When garbage is mixed with other discharges having different disposal or discharge requirements the more stringent requirements shall apply. (MARPOL V/5.3)
Garbage incineration is prohibited in the Baltic Sea. (Helsinki Agreement 1992 Annex IV/7B)
Waste receptacles should be constructed of non-combustible materials with no openings in the sides or bottom. (SOLAS 2004 II-2/4.4.2)
The disposal into the sea of all plastics, including but not limited to synthetic ropes, synthetic fishing nets, plastic garbage bags and incinerator ashes from plastic products which may contain toxic or heavy metal residues, is prohibited. (MARPOL V/3.1(a))
The storage locations for garbage should be carefully selected to ensure that the garbage presents no potential hazard to adjacent spaces. Particular consideration should be given to the storage of garbage that is designated as ‘special waste’, such as batteries, sensors and fluorescent tubes, to ensure that only compatible materials are stowed together. The ICS publication, Guidelines for the Preparation of Garbage Management Plans provides information on how to comply with Annex V of MARPOL 73/78. (ISGOTT 12.4.2)
Notes: Garbage containers should be covered, leak-proof and inside the railing. MSC/Circ. 1120 provides unified interpretations relating to SOLAS II-2/4.4.2, states that the requirements for waste receptacles do not preclude the use of combustible materials for garbage receptacles in galleys, pantries, garbage handling or storage spaces and incinerator rooms provided they are intended purely for the carriage of wet waste, glass bottles and metal cans and are suitably marked.
If food waste is being disposed overboard, there must be strict separation in the galley.
The burning of plastic containing vinyl, PVC or PCB below a temperature of 8000C may produce toxic emissions.
The rating of an incinerator may be recorded in Form B in several different ways and is decided by class. Whichever value is used, there are conversion factors which may be used to determine the capacity in cubic meters. KW multiplied by 0.09998 gives the value in kg/h which for oil sludge is approximately equal to the value in l/h.

6.41 Has the Garbage Record Book been correctly completed?

The Garbage Record Book, whether as a part of the ship's official log-book or otherwise, shall be in the form specified in the appendix to this Annex:
Each discharge operation, or completed incineration, shall be recorded in the Garbage Record Book and signed for on the date of the incineration or discharge by the officer in charge. Each completed page of the Garbage Record Book shall be signed by the Master of the ship. The entries in the Garbage Record Book shall be at least in English, French, or Spanish. Where the entries are also made in an official language of the State whose flag the ship is entitled to fly, these entries shall prevail in case of a dispute or discrepancy;
The entry for each incineration or discharge shall include date and time, position of the ship, description of the garbage and the estimated amount incinerated or discharged;
The Garbage Record Book shall be kept on board the ship and in such a place as to be available for inspection in a reasonable time. This document shall be preserved for a period of two years after the last entry is made on the record. (MARPOL Annex V/9.3)
A recent revision to the Garbage Record Book instructions included the recording of ‘Cargo residues’. These residues are specifically for dry cargo vessels and they do not include residues controlled under MARPOL Annex 1 or 2.

Chapter 7. Structural Condition

Note: Tank entry should only be undertaken if a suitable safe opportunity exists and if it is permitted by the inspecting OCIMF Member, the tanker operator and the terminal.

7.1 Is the Enhanced Survey Programme file free from any information that raises concerns relating to the vessel’s structure?

7.2 Is the hull free from visible structural defects that warrant further investigation?

Notes: Inspection of the hull should include checking for any evidence of structural problems including collision contact or distortion from heavy weather.
Class records should be examined to confirm that class has been involved whenever significant damage has occurred or been repaired.

7.3 Are weather decks free from visible structural defects that warrant further investigation?

Note: Inspection of weather decks should include checking for any evidence of wastage, structural problems including evidence of over-pressurisation, collision contact or distortion from heavy weather.

7.4 Is the superstructure free from visible structural defects that warrant further investigation?

7.5 Are internal spaces free from visible structural defects that warrant further investigation?

7.6 If any cargo and/or ballast tanks were sighted from the deck, were they in good order?

If the internals of a tank, or tanks, were sighted from the deck, record this fact either as an Observation or Other comments as applicable and list the findings as appropriate.
Notes: Regardless of whether tank entry is made, the opportunity should be taken where possible to sight from the deck the internal condition of at least two compartments and the forepeak. Valuable indications as to the condition of compartments such as ballast tanks, access trunks and peak tanks can be made from a visual inspection from the outside.
Indications of problems can be wastage of handrails and ladder rungs, visible corrosion on vertical and horizontal framing, knife-edges on brackets, visible cracking and deformations of bulkheads or frames.
Leakage from adjacent tanks or valve glands may be indicated by the presence of oil or a sheen on the ballast, the presence of gas or the sound of falling liquid.

7.7 If any cargo and/or ballast tanks were inspected internally, were they in good order?

If any cargo or ballast tanks were inspected internally, record the following information:
The names of the compartment(s) inspected;
Where fitted, details of the condition of anodes;
Details of any fractures noted in any part of the structure;
Details of any visible corrosion wastage;
Details of localised pitting, particularly in bottom plating and under bell mouths;
Details of any visible signs of buckling;
If applicable, the condition of the coating (good, fair or poor);
Details of any signs of hard rust;
Areas of concern with respect to pipelines, bulkhead penetrations, ladders, fittings etc.;
Evidence of leakage from adjacent compartments.
For the purposes of this report, coating condition ‘good’, ‘fair’ or ‘poor’ is defined as follows:
Good condition with only minor spot rusting;
Fair condition with local breakdown at edges of stiffeners and weld connections and/or light rusting over 20% or more of areas under consideration, but less than as defined for -poor condition;
Poor condition with general breakdown of coating over 20% or more of areas or hard scale at 10% or more of areas under consideration.
If tank entry or sighting from the deck was not made, record a Not Seen response and record the circumstances.

Chapter 8 Cargo and Ballast Systems - Petroleum

Note: The International Safety Guide for Oil Tankers and Terminals (ISGOTT) contains guidance pertaining to the safe carriage and handling of petroleum products. Inspectors should observe cargo operations, interview responsible personnel, review the operator’s operating procedures and observe the degree of compliance by officers and crew to appropriate regulations and guidelines. Common causes of incidents are poor planning, improper supervision of transfer operations, inadequate knowledge or disregard of the dangers of static electricity, insufficient personnel on duty and insufficient or incorrect information concerning cargo properties.

Policies, Procedures and Documentation:

8.1P Is the vessel provided with operator’s policy statements, guidance and procedures with regard to safe cargo operations?

8.2P Is information readily available on maximum loading rates and venting capacities?

Masters should be provided with information on maximum permissible loading rates for each cargo and ballast tank and, where tanks have a combined venting system, for each group of cargo or ballast tanks. This requirement is aimed at ensuring that tanks are not over or under-pressurised by exceeding the capacity of the venting system, including any installed secondary venting arrangements.
Other considerations will also need to be taken into account when determining maximum loading rates for oil tankers. Precautions against static electricity hazards and pipeline erosion are described in ISGOTT Section 7.3.3.2). (ISGOTT 7.3.3)
Note: This information should be displayed at the cargo control position.

8.3P Are legible and up to date pipeline and/or mimic diagrams of cargo, inert gas and venting systems, as applicable, available in the pump room(s) and cargo control area?

8.4P Are cargo pump performance curves available, where applicable, for various speeds?

8.5P Is a written procedure provided for the safe handling of heavy weather ballast in cargo tanks on segregated ballast tankers?

Stability and Cargo Loading Limitations:

8.6P If a loading computer or programme is in use, is it class approved?

If a class approved loading computer is not available, record in Other comments, how stress and stability calculations are performed.
Notes: Ships of more than 65 metres in length are required by Class to be provided with a loading manual including permissible limits of still water bending moment and shear force; the results of the calculations of still water bending moments; shear forces and where applicable, limitations due to torsional and lateral loads and the allowable local loading for the structure (decks, double bottom, etc.)
Ships of more than 100 metres in length are required by Class to be provided with an approved loading instrument. An operational manual is always to be provided for the loading instrument.
The loading instrument should be capable of calculating shear forces and bending moments in any load or ballast condition at specified readout points and should indicate the permissible values. Ships with very limited possibilities for variations in the distribution of cargo and ballast and ships with a regular or fixed trading pattern may be exempt from the requirement.
Class approvals for loading instruments are made under a Type Approvals process. Type-approval certificates are generally valid for periods of not more than five years. MSC/Circ. 1221 notes that the validity of the Type Approval Certificate itself has no influence on the operational validity of a product accepted and installed onboard ship and that a product manufactured during the period of validity of the relevant Type Approval Certificate need not be renewed or replaced due to the expiry of such Type Approval Certificate.

8.7P Are there records indicating that the operational accuracy of the load computer is tested regularly?

Notes: At each Annual and Special Survey, the loading instrument is to be checked for accuracy and the approved loading guidance information confirmed as being available on board. Class approved data should be used and the tests should be carried out in the presence of the attending surveyor at the annual survey. Regular on-board testing should also take place and records attesting to this should be maintained. The test should involve physically entering the data for each tank into the computer and verifying the result. It is not acceptable to simply retrieve a stored test condition from the computer and compare this against the official conditions.
Comparisons should also be regularly made between the calculated and observed drafts.

8.8P Is the stress and stability information included with the cargo plan and are any limitations understood by the cargo watch officers?

Notes: Inspectors should determine that prior to transfer of cargo, calculations have been made for stress and stability conditions for the start, interim and completion of transfer conditions. Regular monitoring of stress and stability should be taking place throughout cargo transfer to ensure that the conditions have been maintained within design limits.

8.9P Is the vessel free of inherent intact stability problems?

Notes: Vessels that have large width tanks will be subject to reductions of intact stability due to free surface. Although such vessels may meet IMO intact stability criteria when in fully loaded or ballasted conditions, they may be unstable when multiple tanks are slack during cargo or ballast transfer operations, or in intermediate states of loading. Trim and stability manuals generally deal only with arrival and departure conditions and operators are not made aware that stability problems may exist at intermediate stages during cargo transfers.
If a vessel has either large width cargo tanks, ‘U’ section ballast tanks, or double bottom tanks without watertight centreline bulkheads, inspectors should ascertain that the vessel meets IMO intact stability criteria by requesting the Chief Officer to demonstrate, using the class approved loading instrument, the intact stability at the worst case condition (i.e. All tanks slack and maximum free surface).
If no suitable loading instrument is provided and adequate instructions are not available, the question should be answered ‘No’, unless there is satisfactory proof that the vessel is free of inherent stability problems.
Inspectors should ascertain whether all officers appear familiar with operational restrictions and that instructions are prominently posted describing action to take if stability concerns are suspected or experienced. Record a ‘N’ response and appropriate Observation if weaknesses or other concerns are revealed.
If specific procedures have been adopted to address potential stability problems, these should be recorded as an Observation.
All vessels should be aware that ice accretion on deck can significantly affect stability.

8.10P Are Damage Stability Verification guidelines available?

Note: The vessel should have an approved stability information book (SIB), written in a language understood by the officers on board, and the SIB should cover damage conditions. The vessel may have an onboard stability computer programme that includes damage conditions. The methods of verifying the damage stability, including alternative loaded conditions, should be checked and recorded in 'Other comments'.

8.11P Do the operator’s operating manuals include procedures for restoring stability in case of unstable conditions developing during cargo operations, where applicable?

Note: The procedures listed in the Operating Manual must be identical to those posted and practiced (Q8.9 above, refers). If not, record an ‘N’ response and appropriate Observation.

8.12P Where applicable, are officers aware of the dangers of free surface effects and of the possibility of structural damage caused by sloshing in cargo tanks?

8.13P Are cargo and/or ballast tanks free of sloshing or other restrictions?

Important restrictions other than maximum permitted cargo density should be recorded in Other comments.

Cargo Operations and Related Safety Management:

8.14P Are all officers familiar with the cargo system?

8.15P Are all officers familiar with the carriage requirements for the cargoes on board?

Note: Officers should be able to demonstrate a basic knowledge of the following:
Shipboard operations and cargo handling;
Closed loading, discharging and sampling;
Requirements for medical treatment following exposure to hazardous cargoes;
Spill response;
Communication procedures with shore and emergency stop procedures.
And, as required:
Effects of high density cargoes;
Hazards associated with toxic cargoes;
Hazards of electrostatic generation.

8.16P Has a cargo plan been prepared and does it contain a detailed sequence of cargo and ballast transfer?

All cargo operations should be carefully planned and documented well in advance of their execution. The details of the plans should be discussed with all personnel, both on the ship and at the terminal. Plans may need to be modified following consultation with the terminal and following changing circumstances, either onboard or ashore. Any changes should be formally recorded and brought to the attention of all personnel involved with the operation. ISGOTT Chapter 22 contains details of cargo plans and communications regarding them. (ISGOTT 11.1.1)
Note: The plan should cover all stages of the transfer operations and as a minimum, contain:
Quantity and grade of each parcel;
Density, temperature and other relevant properties;
A plan of the distribution, lines and pumps to be used;
Transfer rates and maximum allowable pressures;
Critical stages of the operation;
Notice of rate change;
Venting requirements;
Stability and stress information;
Drafts and trims;
Ballast operations;
Emergency stop procedures;
Emergency spill procedures and spill containment; and
Hazards of the particular cargoes.
And also, as required:
Precautions against static generation;
Initial start-up rates;
Control of cargo heating systems;
Line clearing;
Crude oil washing procedures;
Under keel clearance limitations;
Bunkering; and
Special precautions required for the particular operation.

8.17P Has the cargo plan been signed by the watch officers to indicate their understanding of it?

Note: The cargo plan should be completed by the responsible officer prior to commencement of operations and verified and approved by the Master. It should be comprehensive, contain full details of the operation and be easy to interpret.

8.18P Are cargo operations being carried out and logged in accordance with the plan?

Note: The log must include details of all major events including starting and stopping of main cargo and ballast pumps, tanks being worked and any deviations from the original plan.

8.19P Are all officers aware of the emergency procedures for dealing with leakage, spillage or fire involving the cargo?

8.20P Is the verbal communication between the ship and the shore adequate?

Cargo and Ballast Handling and Monitoring Equipment:

8.21P Are the cargo, ballast and stripping pumps, eductors and their associated instrumentation and controls, in good order and is there recorded evidence of regular testing?

8.22P Are the cargo and ballast pump bearing, casing and shaft gland temperature monitoring sensors in good order and is there evidence of regular testing?

Notes: The requirement is to provide an alarm. There is no requirement for temperatures to be displayed or for a high temperature trip to operate cargo pump bearings must not have temporary cooling fitted.

8.23P Are the cargo lines, crude oil washing lines, vapour lines and inert gas lines in good order and is there recorded evidence of regular testing?

Note: This includes corrosion of bolts and flanges on dresser couplings.

8.24P Is the cargo pump emergency shutdown system in good order and is there recorded evidence of regular testing?

Note: Pump alarms and trips, level alarms, etc., where fitted, should be tested regularly to ensure that they are functioning correctly, and the results of these tests should be recorded.

8.25P Are the cargo and ballast system valves in good order and is there recorded evidence of regular testing?

8.26P Are the cargo system ullage gauges, vapour locks and UTI tapes in good order and is there recorded evidence of regular testing?

8.27P Are the remote and local temperature and pressure sensors and gauges in good order and is there recorded evidence of regular testing?

8.28P Are the cargo tank high level and overflow alarms in good order and is there recorded evidence of regular testing?

Record if high level alarms are not fitted and also if the overfill alarm system is not independent of the main gauging system.
Note: High level alarms should be in operation during both loading and discharging operations.

8.29P Are cargo pipelines tested annually?

The presence of any latent defect in the cargo system will usually reveal itself when the system is pressurised during the discharge operation. It is good practice to pressure test cargo lines on a periodic basis, depending on the trade of the ship. Although these pressure tests may provide an indication of the system’s condition at the time of the test, they should not be considered a substitute for regular external inspection of the pipeline system and periodic internal inspections, particularly at known failure points, such as pump discharge bends and stub pipe connections. (ISGOTT 7.3.2)
Pipelines should be visually examined and subjected to routine pressure tests to verify their condition. Other means of non-destructive testing or examination, such as ultrasonic wall thickness measurement, may be considered appropriate, but should always be supplemented by visual examination. (ISGOTT 10.11.3)
Notes: Cargo pipelines should be tested to 100% of their rated working pressure (Sometimes referred to as Maximum Allowable Working Pressure - MAWP) at least annually. Cargo pipelines should be tested to 1.5 times their rated working pressure at least twice within any five-year period. Pipelines should be marked with the date of test and the test pressure.

8.30P Where fitted and in use, is the condition of the cargo tank heating system satisfactory, is it regularly tested and is any observation tank free of oil?

Notes: Where steam cargo heating systems are fitted and when a heated cargo is being carried at the time of the inspection, an indication of the condition of the heating coils can be provided by inspection of the hot well or observation tank.
A very small amount of oil on the surface of hot wells or observation tanks can be considered normal, but a layer of oil over the surface indicates that there is a problem of some significance.
In the case of thermal oil heating systems, piping should be sound, pumps, joints and glands should be free of leaks and the heater unit should be in good order. Where parts can be isolated, procedures should be in place to identify and record which part is isolated.

Ullaging, Sampling and Closed Operations:

8.31P Are vapour locks, where fitted, calibrated and certified by a recognised cargo inspection
organisation?
Notes: Corrections for datum levels and for list and trim should be checked and approved by the organisation certifying the system if ullages from retrofitted vapour locks are used for cargo calculation. Where vapour locks have been retro-fitted, certificates of calibration must be provided by a recognised Classification society or cargo inspection company.
There should be special purpose cap to fit onto vapour locks or other measuring apertures in order that the atmosphere within the tank can be determined without exposing personnel to escaping gas.

8.32P If fixed tank gauges are not fitted, are sufficient portable tapes provided to simultaneously gauge each tank being worked?

If a fixed cargo tank gauging system is fitted but is unreliable and portable tapes/vapour locks are being used as the main method of ullaging, this fact should be recorded as an Observation. The number of tapes in use must be recorded.
Note: Portable tapes should be calibrated in accordance with manufacturer’s recommendations and valid certificates of calibration should be provided for each instrument.
There is no requirement for the shore calibration of UTI tapes. Temperature sensors should be checked against a reference thermometer every 12 months according to the manufacturer’s instructions.
There is no requirement for the shore calibration of interface tapes. According to IMO MEPC.5 (XIII) – 3.6 the detectors should be calibrated on board in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.

8.33P If the vessel is handling volatile or toxic cargoes, is it operating in a closed condition?

All tankers fitted with a fixed inert gas system shall be provided with a closed ullage system.
(SOLAS II-2/4.5.5.3.3)
Notes: A volatile product is petroleum having a flash point below 600C as determined by the closed cup method of testing.
If a cargo is being handled at a temperature within 100C of its flashpoint, it should be considered volatile. Therefore a cargo with a flashpoint of 800C should be considered volatile if handled at a temperature of 700C or above.

8.34P Is the vessel provided with an approved vapour control system?

A tanker to which paragraph 1 of this regulation applies shall be provided with a vapour emission collection system approved by the Administration and shall use this system during the loading of relevant cargoes. A port or terminal that has installed vapour emission control systems in accordance with this regulation may accept tankers that are not fitted with vapour collection systems for a period of three years after the effective date identified in paragraph 2 of this regulation. (MARPOL Annex VI/15.5)

8.35P Is the vessel in possession of an approved Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) Management Plan?

A tanker carrying crude oil shall have on board and implement a VOC management plan approved by the Administration. Such a plan shall be prepared taking into account the guidelines developed by the Organisation. The plan shall be specific to each ship and shall at least:
Provide written procedures for minimising VOC emissions during the loading, sea passage and discharge of cargo;
Give consideration to the additional VOC generated by crude oil washing;
Identify a person responsible for implementing the plan; and
For ships on international voyages, be written in the working language of the Master and officers and, if the working language of the Master and officers is not English, French or Spanish, include a translation into one of these languages. (MARPOL Annex VI/15.6)
Note: All oil tankers >400gt carrying crude oil are required to have an approved VOC Plan before 1ST July 2010. If the vessel is not designated to carry crude oil then it should be answered 'NA'.

8.36P Do tank hatches, tank cleaning apertures and sighting ports appear to be liquid and gas tight?

Venting Arrangements:

8.37P Is the cargo venting system in good order?

Note: The condition of p/v valves, mast risers, vent stacks, vapour lines, vacuum valves, and flame screens should be assessed.

8.38P Is the cargo venting system being operated correctly?

8.39P Are SOLAS secondary venting requirements being complied with?

A secondary means of full flow relief of vapour, air or inert gas mixtures shall be provided to prevent over-pressure or under-pressure in the event of failure of the primary venting arrangements. Alternatively, pressure sensors may be fitted in each tank protected by the primary venting arrangement with a monitoring system in the cargo control room or the position from which cargo operations are normally carried out. Such monitoring equipment shall also provide an alarm facility which is activated by detection of over-pressure or under-pressure conditions within a tank. (SOLAS II-2/11.6.3.2)
If cargo loading and ballasting or discharging of a cargo tank or cargo tank group which is isolated from a common venting system is intended, that cargo tank or cargo tank group shall be fitted with a means for over-pressure or under-pressure protection as required in Regulation 11.6.3.2. (SOLAS II-2/4.5.3.2.3)
Vessels equipped with vapour collection systems must be fitted with a pressure sensing device that senses the pressure in the main vapour collection line, which:
Has a pressure indicator located on the vessel where the cargo transfer is controlled; and
Has a high pressure and a low pressure alarm that:
Is audible and visible on the vessel where cargo transfer is controlled;
Alarms at a high pressure of not more than 90 percent of the lowest pressure relief valve setting in the cargo tank venting system; and
Alarms at a low pressure of not less than four inches water gauge (0.144 psig) for an inerted tankship, or the lowest vacuum relief valve setting in the cargo tank venting system for a non-inerted tankship. (CFR 46 39.20-13)
Notes: Class societies may accept a system that may not comply with the SOLAS requirements for ‘Secondary means of full flow relief’. In such cases the question should be answered ‘No’. A full description of the system as fitted should be made as an Observation to allow an assessment of acceptability to be made.
If the vessel is described in the IOPPC Form B 1.11.4 as a Crude oil/Product carrier and carries crude and products simultaneously, the IG/Vent isolation valve will be intentionally closed to prevent vapour carryover. In such cases, both primary and secondary protection must be provided on the cargo tank side of the cargo tank IG/Vent isolation valve.
In the case of inerted vessels, if pressure sensors are provided as the means of secondary protection, the alarm settings for the pressure sensors must be set to actuate when the tank pressure reaches 10% greater than the normal actuation settings of the pressure valves themselves. In the case of the low-pressure settings, the pressure in a tank should never be permitted to fall below zero and the pressure sensors should be set to alarm above zero.
In the case of non-inerted vessels if pressure sensors are provided, the over-pressure setting should be set to alarm at 10% greater than the normal actuation settings of the pressure valves, and at a vacuum 10% greater than the normal actuation settings of the vacuum valves.
In all cases, a description of the secondary venting arrangements should be provided, in particular what vents or pressure/vacuum sensing systems are available on each tank when the main inlet valve to IG/vent main is shut. Where electronic pressure/vacuum sensors are provided, identify and record whether the alarms are set to operate at the correct value or some other value.
In actual practice the setting of the alarm might need to be more than 110% of the setting of the pressure and vacuum release valves, in order to avoid continuous sounding of the alarm. Class societies do not appear to have a consensus about the setting of pressure alarms - some state 110%, some 125%, some more. Although a setting of 125% will be well within the capability of the tank structure to withstand such a pressure (125% of a vacuum setting of -350 mb is merely 90 mb, or about 0.1 bars) the setting should be as close to 110% as possible, and should be determined through operational practice.
Where p/v breakers are fitted, they are usually set to operate at about 1800 and -700 mmwg, (180 and – 70 mbars).

8.40P If stop valves are fitted which permit isolation of individual tanks from the common venting system, are they provided with positive locking arrangements and are the keys under the control of the person in overall charge of the cargo transfer?

Where the arrangements are combined with other cargo tanks, either stop valves or other acceptable means shall be provided to isolate each cargo tank. Where stop valves are fitted, they shall be provided with locking arrangements which shall be under the control of the responsible ship's officer. There shall be a clear visual indication of the operational status of the valves or other acceptable means. Where tanks have been isolated, it shall be ensured that relevant isolating valves are opened before cargo loading or ballasting or discharging of those tanks is commenced. Any isolation must continue to permit the flow caused by thermal variations in a cargo tank in accordance with Regulation 11.6.1.1. (SOLAS II-2/4.5.3.2.2)

8.41P Are the p/v valves in good order, inspected and cleaned as part of a regular planned maintenance routine and are there records to support this?

Notes: High jet cones and flaps should not be jacked open, particularly when loading.
Verify that p/v valves, where fitted, are tight and in good order and that the venting system is designed and operated in accordance with SOLAS.
High velocity vents are not fitted with flame screens and their correct operation relies on a pressure build-up within the compartment, which opens the valve at a predetermined level and which then results in a gas exit velocity of a minimum of 30 metres/sec. This provides protection against the passage of flame, the speed of which is about 7.5 metres/sec.
Consistent with safety and without interfering with the operation and if appropriate to the design of the venting equipment, request the manual lifting of p/v valves to demonstrate satisfactory operation.
P/V valves should be checked for free movement prior to the commencement of each cargo operation as required by the Ship to Shore Safety Check List - Question 31.

8.42P Are flame screens easily accessible and removable, in good order and inspected and cleaned as part of a regular maintenance routine and are there records available?

Note: The intake to a vacuum valve of a p/v valve will be fitted with a flame screen.

Inert Gas System:

For tankers of 20,000 tonnes deadweight and upwards, the protection of the cargo tanks shall be achieved by a fixed inert gas system. If the vessel is not fitted with an Inert Gas system questions 8.43 to 8.56 need not be answered. If the vessel is not fitted with an Inert gas system, then questions 8.43 to 8.56 will be removed within the inspector's programme software.

8.43P Is the vessel fitted with an inert gas system?

For tankers of 20,000 tonnes deadweight and upwards, the protection of the cargo tanks shall be achieved by a fixed inert gas system. (SOLAS II-2/4.5.5.1.1)

8.44P Was the inert gas system in use and operating satisfactorily at the time of the inspection?

8.45P Is a log kept of inert gas operations?

8.46P Are records maintained of equipment maintenance, including the overhaul of the non-return valve?

At least two non-return devices, one of which shall be a water seal, shall be fitted in the inert gas supply main, in order to prevent the return of hydrocarbon vapour to the machinery space uptakes or to any gas-safe spaces under all normal conditions of trim, list and motion of the ship. They shall be located between the automatic valve required by paragraph 2.3.1.3.1(Ch.15 of the FSS) and the aftermost connection to any cargo tank or cargo pipeline.
The devices referred to in paragraph 2.3.1.4.1 shall be located in the cargo area on deck.
The second device shall be a non-return valve or equivalent capable of preventing the return of vapours or liquids and fitted forward of the deck water seal required in paragraph 2.3.1.4.1. It shall be provided with positive means of closure. As an alternative to positive means of closure, an additional valve having such means of closure may be provided forward of the non-return valve to isolate the deck water seal from the inert gas main to the cargo tanks.
As an additional safeguard against the possible leakage of hydrocarbon liquids or vapours back from the deck main, means shall be provided to permit this section of the line between the valve having positive means of closure referred to in paragraph 2.3.1.4.3 and the valve referred to in paragraph 2.3.1.3 to be vented in a safe manner when the first of these valves is closed. (FSS 15.2.3.1.4)

8.47P Is an operator’s policy provided that complies with IMO guidelines in case of failure of the inert gas system and do the Master, Chief Officer and the officers standing cargo watches understand this?

Note: In the event that the inert gas system is unable to meet operational requirements of this regulation and it has been assessed that it is impracticable to effect a repair, then cargo discharge, deballasting and necessary tank cleaning shall only be resumed when the emergency conditions laid down in the ‘IMO Guidelines on Inert Gas Systems’ are complied with. In brief, these guidelines state that;
In the case of tankers engaged in the carriage of crude oil, it is essential that the tanks be maintained in the inerted condition to avoid the danger of pyrophoric iron sulphide ignition. If it is assessed that the tanks cannot be maintained in an inerted condition before the inert gas system can be repaired, an external supply of inert gas should be connected to the system to avoid air being drawn into the cargo tanks. (IMO Inert Gas Systems 8.2)
In the case of the carriage of products, if it is considered totally impracticable to effect repair of the inert gas system, cargo discharge may only be resumed if an external supply of inert gas is connected, or the following precautions are taken:
That approved devices, or flame screens, to prevent the passage of flame into cargo tanks are fitted and checked to ensure that they are in good order;
The valves on the mast risers are opened;
No free fall of water or slops is permitted; and
No dipping, ullaging, sampling or other equipment should be introduced into the tank until a period of five hours since injection of inert gas ceased. If essential for the safety of the operation, this should be done only after 30 minutes have elapsed and all metal components should be securely earthed. (IMO Inert Gas Systems 8.3)

8.48P Is the inert gas system including instrumentation, alarms, trips and pressure and oxygen recorders, in good order?

8.49P Is the oxygen content of the inert gas delivery at or below the permitted maximum?

Record an Observation if the oxygen delivery is more than 5% or if a high oxygen level alarm is not fitted, regardless of the date of delivery.
For tankers constructed after 1st September 1984:
The system shall be capable of maintaining the atmosphere in any part of any cargo tank with an oxygen content not exceeding 8% by volume and at a positive pressure at all times in port and at sea, except when it is necessary for the tank to be gas free. (FSS Code 15.2.1.3.2)
The system shall be capable of delivering inert gas with an oxygen content of not more than 5% by volume in the inert gas supply main to the cargo tanks. (FSS Code 15.2.2.1.3)

8.50P Are the vapour spaces in the cargo tanks being maintained at positive pressure?

8.51P Does the oxygen content in the cargo tanks meet IMO requirements?

8.52P Was the fixed oxygen analyser calibrated immediately prior to use of the inert gas system?

Note: The oxygen analyser must have been calibrated not more than 24 hours prior to starting of the inert gas system.

8.53P Do the readings on the local, bridge and cargo control room oxygen and pressure recorders, where fitted, agree?

Instrumentation shall be fitted for continuously indicating and permanently recording when inert gas is being supplied:
The pressure of the inert gas supply forward of the non-return devices; and
The oxygen content of the inert gas in the inert gas supply mains on the discharge side of the gas blowers. (FSS Code 15.2.4.2.1)
The devices referred to above shall be placed in the cargo control room. But where no cargo control room is provided, they shall be placed in a position easily accessible to the officer in charge of cargo operations.
(FSS Code 15.2.4.2.2)
In addition, meters shall be fitted:
In the navigation bridge to indicate at all times the pressure of the inert gas main forward of the non-return devices;
In the machinery control room or in the machinery space to indicate the oxygen content of the inert gas in the inert gas supply mains on the discharge side of the gas blowers. (FSS Code 15.2.4.2.3)

8.54P Is the liquid level in the deck seal correct and clearly visible?

Record in Other comment if a dry-type deck seal is fitted.
Notes: The OCIMF paper on inert gas deck seals recommends that a dry-type deck seal is replaced with one of another type.
Normally with a dry type seal there is a dump valve which should open when the inert gas supply is stopped and which allows the water from the upper tank to drain to the lower, thereby creating a seal. The crew should be requested to stop the inert gas momentarily (which will not affect cargo operations), to see if this process actually takes place. Upon restoring the supply, the dump valve should close and the upper tank filling and lower tank drain valves open.

8.55P Does the p/v breaker appear to be in good order?

Water filled pressure/vacuum breakers should be filled to the appropriate level with anti-freeze liquid.
(ISGOTT 7.1.11.3)
Class societies do not require a flame screen to be fitted to p/v breakers.

8.56P Can double hull spaces be
inerted?
Tankers required to be fitted with inert gas systems shall be fitted with suitable connections for the supply of inert gas to double hull spaces. (SOLAS 2001 II-2/59.4.3)
Tankers required to be fitted with inert gas systems shall comply with the following provisions:
Double hull spaces shall be fitted with suitable connections for the supply of inert gas;
Where hull spaces are connected to a permanently fitted inert gas distribution system, means shall be provided to prevent hydrocarbon gases from the cargo tanks entering the double hull spaces through the system; and
Where such spaces are not permanently connected to an inert gas distribution system, appropriate means shall be provided to allow connection to the inert gas main. (SOLAS 2009 II-2/4.5.5.1.3)
This requirement applies to vessels constructed on or after 1st October 1994. (SOLAS 2001 II-2/59.4.1)
There is no requirement to carry an additional spare p/v valve for ballast tank inerting. Double hull spaces may be inerted using the bottom ballast lines.

Crude Oil Washing:

If the vessel is not fitted with a crude oil washing system questions 8.57 to 8.68 need not be answered, however if the vessel has a crude oil washing system but is not in use at the time of inspection then question 8.57 to 8.68 should still be answered. If the vessel is not fitted with a crude oil washing system, then questions 8.57 to 8.68 will be removed within the inspector's programme software.

8.57P Is the vessel fitted with a crude oil washing system?

Every new crude oil tanker of 20,000 tons deadweight and above shall be fitted with a cargo tank cleaning system using crude oil washing. (MARPOL Annex I/33.1)

8.58P If crude oil washing is being carried out are the tanks being Crude oil washed in accordance with IMO requirements?

With respect to the ballasting of cargo tanks, sufficient cargo tanks shall be crude oil washed prior to each ballast voyage in order that, taking into account the tanker's trading pattern and expected weather conditions, ballast water is put only into cargo tanks which have been crude oil washed.
(MARPOL Annex 1/35.2)
Before departure on a ballast voyage:
Ballast water is put only into cargo tanks which have been crude oil washed. Approximately one quarter of the cargo tanks shall be crude oil washed for sludge control purposes on a rotational basis in accordance with the procedures specified in the Operations and Equipment Manual. However, for these purposes, no tank need be crude oil washed more than once in every four months;
If it is considered that additional ballast in a cargo tank or tanks may be required during the ballast voyage, the tank or tanks which may be used for this ballast shall be crude oil washed in accordance with the procedures in the Operations and Equipment Manual; and
Ballast water shall not be put into cargo tanks that have not been crude oil washed.
(IMO Res. A.446(XI) 6.1 and amendments A.496(XII) and A.897(21)
Note: If the crude oil being carried is listed in the Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual as being not suitable for crude oil washing then answer the question ‘N/A’.

8.59P Is an approved Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual provided?

8.60P If the vessel is crude oil washing, has a checklist been completed?

8.61P Is the person in charge of COW operations suitably qualified?

Where a person such as the Master, the Chief Officer or the cargo control officer assumes overall charge of a crude oil wash he shall:
Have at least one year's experience on oil tankers where his duties have included the discharge of cargo and associated crude washing. Where his duties have not included crude oil washing operations, he shall have completed a training programme in crude oil washing in accordance with IMO Res. A.446 (XI);
Have participated at least twice in crude oil wash programmes one of which shall be on the particular ship for which he is required to undertake the responsibility of cargo discharge. Alternatively, this latter participation may be acceptable if undertaken on a ship that is similar in all relevant respects; and
Be fully knowledgeable of the contents of the Operations and Equipment Manual.
(IMO Crude Oil Washing Systems 5.2)

8.62P Do records indicate that the crude oil washing system was pressure tested prior to use?

Before arriving in a port where it is intended to crude oil wash, the tank washing system should be pressure tested to normal working pressure and examined for leaks.
The system should be drained down after testing to avoid the risk of leaks due to thermal expansion. Any leaks found should be made good, after which the system should be re-tested and proved leak free. During crude oil washing, the system must be kept under constant observation so that any leak can be detected immediately and action taken to deal with it. When tanks for crude oil washing are being changed over, the pressure in the COW line should be reduced to a minimum before any valves on the system are opened or closed, thereby minimising the potential for damage due to surge pressure. (ISGOTT 11.5.5)

8.63P Do records indicate that oxygen readings of the tanks to be crude oil washed have been checked by portable meter and found to be within maximum permissible limits?

8.64P Has a crude oil washing plan been prepared and is it being followed?

8.65P Are crude oil washing line pressure gauges working?

8.66P Is the tank cleaning heater, where fitted, effectively isolated from the crude oil washing line?

8.67P Are any hydrant-type connections on the crude oil washing lines securely sealed?

Note: Either blanks or valves with caps should be fitted.

8.68P Are records maintained of previous COW operations?

Note: A record should be being maintained of all COW operations, including the tanks washed, the number of machines used, the time washing started and was completed, the washing pattern employed, the washing line pressure and the method employed to ensure that the tanks were dry.

Static Electricity Precautions:

Notes: ISGOTT Chapter 3 addresses the hazards associated with static electricity. ISGOTT Chapter 11 addresses the precautions that must be taken when handling static accumulator cargoes in more detail. Provided that a tank is maintained in an inert condition when static non-accumulator cargoes are being handled, or when it can be guaranteed that the tank atmosphere is non-flammable, no anti-static precautions are necessary.
Questions 8.69 to 8.76 are applicable to vessels carrying static accumulator cargoes in non-inert tanks. If the cargo is not a static accumulator or if the tanks are properly inerted, these questions will be removed from the inspector's programme software.
Static accumulator cargoes are all those except fuel with anti-static additive, heavy black fuel oils, conductive crude oil, bitumen, alcohols and ketones. (See ISGOTT Table 3.1)

8.69P Are precautions relating to maximum flow rates during initial loading being observed?

The generally accepted method for controlling electrostatic generation in the initial stages of loading is to restrict the velocity of oil entering the tank to 1 metre/second until the tank inlet is well covered and all splashing and surface turbulence in the tank has ceased. The 1 metre/second limit applies in the branch line to each individual cargo tank and should be determined at the smallest cross-sectional area including valves or other piping restrictions in the last section before the tank's loading inlet. (ISGOTT 11.1.7.3)

8.70P Are required settling periods being observed?

There should be a delay of 30 minutes (settling time) after the completion of loading of each tank before commencing these operations (dipping, ullaging or sampling with metallic equipment). This is to allow the settling of gas bubbles, water or particulate matter in the liquid and the dissipation of any electrical potential.
(ISGOTT 11.8.2.3)
Note: If the vessel is fitted with a fixed tank level gauging system, but is not fitted with IG and not fitted with full depth sounding pipes, the Operator’s policy relating to actions to be taken in the event of failure of the primary fixed gauging system must be reviewed.

8.71P Where vapour locks are fitted to cargo tanks that are not fitted with full depth sounding pipes, are static electricity precautions taken to ensure that the appropriate relaxation period elapses prior to ullaging or sampling?

Operations carried out through sounding pipes are permissible at any time because it is not possible for any significant charge to accumulate on the surface of the liquid within a correctly designed and installed sounding pipe. A sounding pipe is defined as a conducting pipe which extends the full depth of the tank and which is effectively bonded and earthed to the tank structure at its extremities. The pipe should be slotted in order to prevent any pressure differential between the inside of the pipe and the tank and to ensure that true level indications are obtained. (ISGOTT 11.8.2.3)

8.72P Are metal tapes and other gauging or sampling devices effectively bonded before being introduced into tanks?

Note: UTI tapes must be bonded before being introduced into tanks. UTI tapes which have quick couplings to connect the unit to the vapour lock will possibly not require bonding wires. However, the internal bonding of such units should be checked every six months in accordance with the manufacturer’s requirements.

8.73P Are natural fibre ropes, as opposed to synthetic, used for dipping etc.?

(When washing in a non-inert atmosphere) To control the sources of ignition in the tank, equipment made entirely of non-metallic materials may, in general, be used, for example a wooden sounding rod may be suspended on a natural fibre rope without earthing. (ISGOTT 11.3.5.2(g))

8.74P If portable tank cleaning hoses are used, are continuity tests carried out and the results recorded?

Bonding wires should be incorporated within all portable tank washing hoses to ensure electrical continuity. Couplings should be connected to the hose in such a way that effective bonding is ensured between them. Hoses should be indelibly marked to allow identification. A record should be kept showing the date and the result of electrical continuity testing. (ISGOTT 11.3.6.2)
All hoses supplied for tank washing machines should be tested for electrical continuity in a dry condition prior to use, and in no case should the resistance exceed 6 ohms per metre length. (ISGOTT 11.3.6.3)

8.75P Are personnel aware of the hazards associated with tank cleaning after the carriage of volatile products?

Note: The recommendations contained in ISGOTT Chapter 11.3 must be strictly observed.

8.76P Are personnel aware of the need to avoid the free fall of liquid into tanks?

Loading or ballasting from the top (overall) delivers charged liquid to a tank in such a manner that it can break up into small droplets and splash into the tank. This may produce a charged mist as well as an increase in the petroleum gas concentration in the tank. Restrictions upon loading or ballasting overall are given in ISGOTT Section 11.1.12. (ISGOTT 3.3.3)

Manifold Arrangements:

8.77P Are the manifolds in good order?

The following applies to vessels of 16,000 dwt and above:
The distance of the presentation flanges inboard from the ship’s side should be 4600 mm.
(Recommendations for Manifolds 2.2)
The height of the centres of the presentation flanges above the deck should not exceed 2100 mm.
(Recommendations for Manifolds 2.3.2)
The working platform (the grating of the saveall) should be fitted to allow 900 mm between the level of the platform and the centres of the presentation flanges. (Recommendations for Manifolds 2.3.3)

8.78P Are manifold pressure gauges fitted outboard of the manifold valves on both sides of the vessel and are they in good order?

Manifold pressure gauges should be fitted to the spool pieces/reducers on the outboard side of the manifold valves. (ISGOTT 24.6.3)

8.79P Are pressure gauges also fitted to the offshore manifolds and regularly checked during cargo transfer for manifold valve leakage?

8.80P Are manifold pressure gauges fitted with valves or cocks?

8.81P Are manifold blank flanges of an equivalent rating to that of the manifold pipelines?

Notes: It is generally accepted that steel blanks should be of the same thickness as the flanges to which they are attached, but this will not necessarily result in the pressure capability being the same as that of the associated pipework.
It is the pressure rating of the blank which is important and blanks made of materials such as titanium have a superior strength and may therefore be significantly thinner for the same pressure rating as a mild steel blank. If such blanks are fitted, documentation should be on board to prove that the pressure rating is adequate for the service.
This also applies to other manifolds such as bunker lines which can become pressurised where, for example, valves have been inadvertently left closed, and cause leakage on the opposite side of the vessel in the same way as for cargo manifolds.

8.82P If the vessel is fitted with vapour return manifolds, are they in good order?

To guard against the possible misconnection of the ship’s vapour manifold to a terminal liquid loading line, the vapour connection should be clearly identified by painting the outboard 1 metre section with yellow and red bands and by stenciling the word ‘VAPOUR’ in black letters upon it.
In addition, a cylindrical stud should be permanently attached to each presentation flange face at the 12 o’clock position on the flange bolt circle. The stud should project 25.4 mm (1 inch) perpendicular to the flange face, and should be 12.7 mm (½ inch) in diameter, in order to prevent the connection of standard liquid transfer hoses. Blank flanges, inboard ends of reducers and hoses for the vapour line will have an extra hole to accommodate the stud on the presentation flange.
Full details of vapour manifold arrangements, materials and fittings are contained in the OCIMF publication Recommendations for Oil Tanker Manifolds and Associated Equipment. (ISGOTT 11.1.13.2)

8.83P If the vapour return manifolds are designed for use at single buoy moorings, do they comply with requirements?

If the vessel is not designed to be utilised at single buoy moorings that are equipped with a vapour emission control system, answer the question ‘NA’.
Note: Vapour return system manifolds (VRSM) which are designed for use at single buoy moorings:
Should be supported to the same strength as the cargo manifolds;
Hose rails at the ship's side should be of the same strength and construction throughout their length, extend beyond the VRSM to permit use at single buoy moorings and be fitted with stopper plates at both the forward and aft ends of the hose rail;
A closed chock should be fitted at the ship's side in line with the VRSM;
A cruciform bollard should be fitted in line, or nearly in line with the VRSM to allow securing of the VRS hose hang-off chain;
Two deck pad-eyes of size sufficient to secure 16’ floating hose should be provided, one to either side of the line from the closed chock to the VRSM;
Means to thoroughly drain the VRSM should be provided at the lowest point in the VRS line to avoid risk of liquid carry-over into the floating hose.
There are currently only three terminals which operate with vapour return at SBM’s – the River Mersey in the UK, offshore West Australia and Ras Lanuf.

8.84P Does the vessel’s piping system appear to be free of unauthorised inter-connections between cargo, bunker and ballast systems?

Pump rooms:

This section applies to all pump rooms if fitted, including Cargo Pump Rooms, Ballast Pump Rooms and Fuel Oil Transfer Pump Rooms.

8.85P On vessels with pump rooms, are they free of evidence of significant leaks from machinery, pipework, valve glands and instrumentation?

8.86P Are bulkhead seals gas tight and, if required, well lubricated?

8.87P Is the cargo pump room gas monitoring system in good order and regularly checked?

All tankers shall be fitted, by the date of the first scheduled docking after 1st July 2002 but not later than 1st July 2005, with a system for continuous monitoring of the concentration of hydrocarbon gases. Sampling points or detector heads shall be located in suitable positions in order that potentially dangerous leakages are readily detected. When the hydrocarbon gas concentration reaches a pre-set level, which shall not be higher than 10% of the LEL, a continuous audible and visual alarm signal shall be automatically effected in the pump room and cargo control room to alert personnel to the potential hazard. (SOLAS 2000 II-2/4.5.10.1.3 and 1.6.7)
The alarm shall be automatically effected in the pump room, engine control room, cargo control room and navigation bridge on vessels constructed on or after 1st July 2002. (SOLAS 2000 II-2/4.5.10.1.3)
Note: Existing systems having a pre-set level of not more than 30% LEL may be accepted on vessels constructed before 1st July 2002.

8.88P Are pump rooms clean, tidy and free of combustible material?

8.89P Are the pump room bilges free of cargo product?

8.90P Is the level of lighting in the pump room adequate?

Cargo hoses:

8.91P If the vessel uses its own cargo hoses, are they in good order, pressure tested annually to their design working pressure and is a record of all hose tests and inspections maintained on board?

Note: Each hose should be marked with the test date and pressure, maximum working pressure and be individually numbered for identification purposes.

Cargo lifting equipment:

8.92P Are all cargo derricks, cranes and other lifting equipment properly marked and has periodical testing and inspection been carried out?

Notes: Cargo lifting equipment should be load tested every five years and thoroughly examined by a competent person annually. Other lifting equipment is not regulated except as usually required by class, but should be tested and examined under a similar regime. The minimum SWL for which testing is required is one tonne (1,000 kgs).
A Chain Register is not required, but documentation supporting testing, examination and maintenance that follows the OCIMF Publication Recommendations for the Tagging/Labelling, Testing and Maintenance, Documentation/Certification for Ships' Lifting Equipment should be maintained.

8.93P Are winches associated with lifting equipment in good order?

Note: Cargo derrick topping lifts should have a means of securing them, such as a locking pin or ratchet, to prevent the weight of the derrick being solely taken by the winch brake. Check that this is fitted and that it and any associated winches are in good condition. Documentation supporting testing, examination and maintenance that follow the OCIMF Publication Recommendations for the Tagging/Labelling, Testing, and Maintenance, Documentation/Certification for Ships' Lifting Equipment should be maintained.

Ship to ship transfer operations - petroleum

Questions 8.94-8.98 ask for basic information to determine if the vessel can be considered for off-shore STS. If the vessel is equipped with specialised equipment for regular STS transfer operations such as fenders and hoses, the fact should be recorded in Additional comments. If the vessel is NOT utilised for regular commercial ship-to-ship cargo transfer, Questions 8.94-97 must be answered ‘NA’.

8.94P Are operator’s procedures provided for ship to ship operations?

Any oil tanker involved in STS operations shall carry on board a Plan prescribing how to conduct STS operations (STS Operations Plan) not later than the date of the first annual, intermediate or renewal survey of the ship to be carried out on or after 1st January 2011. Each oil tanker’s STS Operations Plan shall be approved by the Administration. The STS operations plan shall be written in the working language of the ship.
(MARPOL I/41.1)
Notes: An STS Operations Plan is not required for liftings from FPSOs, FSOs and for bunkering operations (See MARPOL Annex I/40 for full details)
The STS Operations Plan shall be developed taking into account the information contained in IMO’s Manual on Oil Pollution, Section 1, Prevention’ and the ICS/OCIMF Ship to Ship Transfer Guide, Petroleum 4th Edition 2005.

8.95P Are sufficient closed fairleads and mooring bitts provided?

It is recommended that all fairleads used during STS transfer operations are of an enclosed type. Such fairleads should be strong enough to take the anticipated mooring loads and large enough to allow the mooring line (plus any soft rope and tackle) to pass through comfortably. (STS Guide 9.3)
It has been found that full strength enclosed fairleads and bitts for spring lines need to be positioned no more than 35 metres forward and aft of the cargo manifold. (STS Guide 9.3)
It is recommended that all tankers be fitted with an array of mooring bitts of sufficient strength on each side of the ship. (STS Guide 9.3)
In addition it is recommended that provision be made for securing fender lines. (STS Guide 9.3)

8.96P Are ship-to-ship transfer checklists completed?

The checklists should be used not only at the time of transfer but also when the operation is being planned. Adherence to check list procedures will ensure that the most important aspects of an operation are covered. The checklists are:
Pre-fixture information;
Before operations commence;
Before run-in and mooring;
Before cargo transfer; and
Before unmooring. (STS Guide 3.3 and Appendix 1)

8.97P If a ship-to-ship transfer was in progress during the inspection, was it conducted in accordance with the recommendations of the OCIMF/ICS STS Transfer Guide?

Chapter 8. Cargo and Ballast Systems – Chemical

Notes: This chapter can only be completed if the vessel is provided with a Certificate of Fitness for the Carriage of Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk or International Pollution Prevention Certificate for the Carriage of Noxious Liquid Substances (NLS).
If a vessel is certified as a chemical tanker and sometimes carries Annex I cargoes, it shall be inspected as a chemical tanker, irrespective of the cargo on board at the time of the inspection. However, if the on-board records reveal that the vessel is being used for oil cargoes only, the vessel shall be inspected as an oil tanker.
In answering the questions below, note that the IBC Code applies only to those vessels where the keel was laid on or after 1st July 1986.
The BCH Code applies to vessels whose keel was laid or which were at a similar stage of construction on or after 12th April 1972. It also applies to vessels constructed before this date, except for the construction provisions of BCH 1.7.3 (a) to (f).
Effective 1st January 2007, revisions to MARPOL Annex II re-categorised products into X, Y, Z and Other Substances (OS). The pollution hazards and carriage requirements of all chemicals have been re-evaluated. Categories X, Y and Z carriage requirements are set out in Chapter 17 of the IBC Code. Category Z cargoes are also set out in Chapter 18 of the IBC Code along with OS cargoes. P and A Manuals for all vessels carrying Category X, Y or Z cargoes must have been re-approved prior to 1st January 2007.
The MEPC.2 Circular provides a provisional categorisation of liquid substances and is issued in December each year. The current Circular is MEPC.2/Circ.16 (2011). Under normal circumstances chapters 17 and 18 of the IBC Code take precedence over List 1 of the MEPC.2 Circular, in this exceptional case, the entries in Annex 1 List 1: Pure and technically pure products, which apply to ‘all countries’ and no expiry date, supersede those in the IBC Code.
Category X: NLS which, if discharged into the sea from tank cleaning or deballasting operations, are deemed to present a major hazard to either marine resources or human health and, therefore, justify the prohibition of the discharge into the marine environment;
Category Y: NLS which, if discharged into the sea from tank cleaning or deballasting operations, are deemed to present a hazard to either marine resources or human health or cause harm to amenities or other legitimate uses of the sea and therefore justify a limitation on the quality and quantity of the discharge into the marine environment;
Category Z: NLS which, if discharged into the sea from tank cleaning or deballasting operations, are deemed to present a minor hazard to either marine or human health and therefore justify less stringent restrictions on the quality and quantity of the discharge into the marine environment;
Category OS: Substances which have been evaluated and found to fall outside Categories X, y, or Z because they are considered to present no harm to marine resources, human health, amenities or other legitimate uses of the sea when discharged into the sea from tank cleaning or deballasting operations. The discharge of bilge or ballast water or other residues or mixtures containing these substances are not subject to any requirements of MARPOL Annex II.
The carriage of Category Z requires only a NLS Certificate. The carriage of Category OS will not require either but in practice the class society will probably supply the vessel with a list of the cargoes to present to port authorities if required.
Category Z cargoes are not regulated by the Chemical Code, but are regulated as a pollutant under MARPOL Annex II. ‘Other Substances’ are regulated neither by the Chemical Code as a chemical nor by MARPOL as a pollutant.
Oil-Like Noxious Liquid Substances may, after 1st January 2007, only be carried on chemical tankers.
Under the MARPOL Annex II amendments the Baltic and Black Sea Special Areas will no longer apply after 1st January 2007. The only chemical Special Area will be the Antarctic south of 600 South.

Policies, Procedures and Documentation:

8.1C Is the vessel provided with company policy statements, instructions and procedures with regard to safe cargo operations?

8.2C Is information readily available on maximum loading rates and venting capacities?

Note: This information should be displayed at the cargo control position.

8.3C Are legible and up to date pipeline and/or mimic diagrams of cargo, inert gas and venting systems available in the cargo control area?

8.4C Is there a Procedures and Arrangements Manual available?

Note: The list of cargoes which the vessel is allowed to carry is attached to the International Certificate of Fitness. It is not a requirement for the list of cargoes to be attached to the P & A Manual.

8.5C Is the Cargo Record Book correctly completed and up to date?

A Cargo Record Book is required when carrying chemicals under either a Certificate of Fitness or a NLS Certificate. Entries should be recorded as they occur and not at some later point in time.

8.6C Are there procedures for tank cleaning after flammable and toxic products, using chemicals and solvents, gas freeing and for steaming cargo tanks?

8.7C Are tank cleaning guidelines available?

Notes: Tank cleaning is one of the most hazardous operations in chemical tankers and it is therefore essential that a comprehensive guide is available on board.
Some major chemical tanker operators have developed their own comprehensive tank cleaning guidelines and these should be reviewed. If they have not, a recognised professionally produced industry publication should be available on board.
The MEPC.2/Circ.16 should be available in order to verify that the tank cleaning material in use is approved by the IMO. If not listed, the wash water might be subject to mandatory shore disposal.
Cleaning by ventilation to remove cargo residues must be approved by the Administration, in accordance with the revised MARPOL Annex II and the conditions contained in the P and A Manual.
(MARPOL Annex II/13.3, 13.7.2.2 and Appendix 7)
MARPOL Annex II does not require the provision of dedicated slop tanks and does not restrict the use of any cargo tank as a slop tank. In the case of slops being retained on board that are incompatible, cargo tanks should be designated as slop tanks.

Stability and Cargo Loading Limitations:

The Master of the ship shall be supplied with a loading and stability information booklet. This booklet shall contain details of typical service and ballast conditions, provisions for evaluating other conditions of loading and a summary of the ship’s survival capabilities. In addition, the booklet shall contain sufficient information to enable the Master to load and operate the ship in a safe and seaworthy manner.

8.8C Have stability calculations and where applicable stress calculations, been performed for the current cargo operation?

8.9C Is the stress and stability information included with the cargo plan and are any limitations understood by the cargo watch officers?

Notes: Inspectors should determine that prior to transfer of cargo, calculations have been made for stress and stability conditions for the start, interim and completion of transfer conditions. Regular monitoring of stress and stability should be taking place throughout cargo transfer to ensure that the conditions have been maintained within design limits.

8.10C Are damage stability guidelines available?

Notes: Damage assumptions are addressed in Chapter 2.5 of the IBC Code and the stability booklet shall contain information on the ship’s survival capabilities. The procedures listed in the Operating Manual must be identical to those posted and practiced (Q8.9 above, refers). If not, record an Observation.

8.11C Is the Master aware of the worst damage stability condition in the stability book?

8.12C Is the vessel free of inherent intact stability problems?

Notes: Vessels that have large width tanks will be subject to reductions of intact stability due to free surface. Although such vessels may meet IMO intact stability criteria when in fully loaded or ballasted conditions, they may be unstable when multiple tanks are slack during cargo or ballast transfer operations, or in intermediate states of loading. Trim and stability manuals generally deal only with arrival and departure conditions and operators are not made aware that stability problems may exist at intermediate stages during cargo transfers.
If a vessel has either large width cargo tanks, ‘U’ section ballast tanks, or double bottom tanks without watertight centreline bulkheads, inspectors should ascertain that the vessel meets IMO intact stability criteria by requesting the Chief Officer to demonstrate, using the class approved loading instrument, the intact stability at the worst case condition (i.e. All tanks slack and maximum free surface).
If no suitable loading instrument is provided and adequate instructions are not available, the question should be answered ‘No’, unless there is satisfactory proof that the vessel is free of inherent stability problems.
Inspectors should ascertain whether all officers appear familiar with operational restrictions and that instructions are prominently posted describing action to take if stability concerns are suspected or experienced. Record a ‘N’ response and appropriate Observation if weaknesses or other concerns are revealed.
If specific procedures have been adopted to address potential stability problems, these should be recorded as an Observation.
All vessels must be aware that ice accretion on deck can significantly affect stability.

8.13C If a loading computer or programme is in use, is it class approved?

If a class approved loading computer is not available, record in Other comments how stress and stability calculations are performed.
Notes: Ships of more than 65 metres in length are required by Class to be provided with a loading manual including permissible limits of still water bending moment and shear force; the results of the calculations of still water bending moments; shear forces and where applicable, limitations due to torsional and lateral loads and the allowable local loading for the structure (decks, double bottom, etc.).
Ships of more than 100 metres in length are required by Class to be provided with an approved loading instrument. An operational manual is always to be provided for the loading instrument.
The loading instrument should be capable of calculating shear forces and bending moments in any load or ballast condition at specified readout points and should indicate the permissible values. Ships with very limited possibilities for variations in the distribution of cargo and ballast and ships with a regular or fixed trading pattern may be exempt from the requirement.
Class approvals for loading instruments are made under a Type Approvals process. Type-approval certificates are generally valid for periods of not more than five years. MSC/Circ. 1221 notes that the validity of the Type Approval Certificate itself has no influence on the operational validity of a product accepted and installed onboard ship and that a product manufactured during the period of validity of the relevant Type Approval Certificate need not be renewed or replaced due to the expiry of such Type Approval Certificate.

8.14C Are there records indicating that the operational accuracy of the load computer is tested regularly?

Notes: At each Annual and Special Survey, the loading instrument is to be checked for accuracy and the approved loading guidance information confirmed as being available on board. Class approved data should be used and the tests should be carried out in the presence of the attending surveyor at the annual survey. Regular on-board testing should also take place and records attesting to this should be maintained. The test should involve physically entering the data for each tank into the computer and verifying the result. It is not acceptable to simply retrieve a stored test condition from the computer and compare this against the official conditions.

8.15C Are longitudinal stresses, where applicable, maintained within design limits throughout

8.16C Are cargo and/or ballast tanks free of sloshing or weight restrictions?

Important restrictions other than those normally applied such as maximum density should be recorded in Other comments.

8.17C Where applicable, are officers aware of the dangers of high free surface effects and of the possibility of structural damage caused by sloshing in cargo tanks?

8.18C Do the operator’s operating manuals include procedures for restoring stability in case of unstable conditions developing during cargo operations, where applicable?

Cargo Operations and Related Safety Management:

8.19C Are the cargoes being carried listed on the Certificate of Fitness or IPPC for the Carriage of Noxious Liquid Substances in bulk?

Note: If the cargo being carried is not listed on the Certificate of Fitness there must be authorisation from the Administration or their representative allowing the product to be carried. Reference to the MEPC.2/Circ. 16 shall be made in cases where a cargo is not listed in the Certificate of Fitness.

8.20C Are all officers familiar with the cargo system?

8.21C Are all officers familiar with the carriage requirements for the cargoes on board and chemicals in general?

Note: Officers shall be able to demonstrate a basic knowledge of the following:
Shipboard operations and cargo handling;
Closed loading, discharging and sampling;
MARPOL ANNEX II including the meaning of Category X, Y, Z and OS cargoes;
The IBC and BCH Codes, where applicable;
Requirements for medical treatment following exposure to hazardous cargoes; including the use of antidotes when applicable;
Chemical spill response;
Communication procedures with shore and emergency stop procedures.
And, as required:
Drying, padding and inerting;
Precautions for reactive and self-reactive cargoes;
Limitations when loading high density cargoes;
Hazards associated with corrosive cargoes;
Hazards associated with toxic cargoes;
Hazards of electrostatic generation;
Hazards associated with handling nitrogen;
Handling solidifying and high viscosity cargoes;
Pre-wash requirements.

8.22C When an unfamiliar chemical is to be carried, is there a procedure to review the safety aspects and handling procedures?

Note: For each chemical carried a review of the carriage requirements should have been made in order to ensure that the cargo plan contains all the necessary information for the safe carriage of the product. The review should reference:
The IBC Code Chapter 17;
MEPC.2/Circular 12 when applicable;
The Certificate of Fitness;
The P and A Manual; and
Material Safety Data Sheets.

8.23C Is a cargo compatibility chart available?

Note: If the USCG compatibility chart is used then reference to Appendix 1 (b) 'dangerously reactive exceptions to the compatibility chart' must be made during preparation of the stowage plan.

8.24C Has a cargo-handling plan been prepared which provides a detailed sequence of cargo and ballast transfer?

Note: The plan should cover all stages of the transfer operations, namely:
Quantity and grade of each parcel;
Density, temperature and other relevant properties;
A plan of the distribution, lines and pumps to be used;
Transfer rates and maximum allowable pressures;
Cargo pollution category;
Flammability and toxicity; (including antidotes if applicable);
Fire protection including fire fighting agent;
Miscibility;
Critical stages of the operation;
Notice of rate change;
Venting requirements;
Stability and stress information;
Drafts and trims;
Ballast operations;
Emergency stop procedures;
Action to be taken in the event of a spill;
Protective equipment requirements; and
Hazards of the particular cargoes.
And also, as required or applicable:
Inhibitor requirements;
Inerting and padding;
Cargo viscosity;
Cargo melting point;
Cooling;
Tank coating material compatibility;
Precautions against static generation;
Control of cargo heating systems;
Line clearing;
Under keel clearance limitations;
Bunkering; and
Special precautions required for the particular operation.

8.25C Has the cargo plan been signed by the watch officers to indicate their understanding of it?

Note: The cargo plan should be completed by the responsible officer prior to commencement of operations and verified and approved by the Master. It should be comprehensive, contain full details of the operation and be easy to interpret.

8.26C Are cargo operations being carried out and logged in accordance with the plan?

Note: The log must include details of all major events including starting and stopping of main cargo and ballast pumps and tanks being worked.

8.27C If the cargo is required to be inhibited, is the required information available?

Certain cargoes with a reference in column ‘o’ of Chapter 17, by the nature of their chemical make-up, tend, under certain conditions of temperature, exposure to air or contact with a catalyst, to undergo polymerisation, decomposition, oxidation or other chemical changes. Mitigation of this tendency is carried out by introducing small amounts of chemical additives into the liquid cargo or controlling the tank environment. (IBC 15.13.1)
Care shall be taken to ensure that these cargoes are sufficiently protected to prevent deleterious chemical change at all times during the voyage. Ships carrying such cargoes shall be provided with a certificate of protection from the manufacturer and kept during the voyage, specifying:
The name and amount of additive present;
Whether the additive is oxygen dependent;
Date the additive was put in the product and the duration of its effectiveness;
Any temperature limitations qualifying the additive’s effective lifetime; and
The action to be taken should the length of the voyage exceed the effective lifetime of the additives.

8.28C Are the dangers associated with co-mingling non-compatible cargoes in slop tanks and drip trays considered?

Note: The cargo plan shall identify when care shall be taken to avoid the co-mingling of non-compatible cargoes and which cargoes are involved.

8.29C Are all officers aware of the emergency procedures for dealing with leakage, spillage or fire involving the cargo?

Officers shall be trained in emergency procedures to deal with conditions of leakage, spillage or fire involving the cargo and a sufficient number of them shall be instructed and trained in essential first aid for cargoes carried. (IBC 16.3.3)
Note: Procedures must include the use of antidotes where applicable.

8.30C Is the verbal communication between the ship and the shore adequate?

8.31C Is a tank cleaning plan established prior to cleaning operations?

Notes: Adequate planning of cleaning operations is crucial to the successful carriage of chemicals and to the avoidance of rejection of tanks, contamination of cargo and incidents. The two most important criteria are the previous and the next cargoes and these two factors will determine the level of cleaning required.
Planning should take into account the method of cleaning required and also ensure that all parts of the cargo system which were in contact with the previous cargo are cleaned, including the tank walls, pumps, cofferdams and exhaust traps, stripping system, cargo and vent lines, cargo valves, p/v valves, sounding pipes, stub pipes, dead ends etc.
The plan should detail, for each of the pre and final cleaning steps:
The previous and following cargoes;
The condition of the cargo tank to be cleaned and whether toxic or flammable vapour is present, or whether lack of oxygen should be suspected;
Any precautions necessary with respect to the condition of the tank;
The cleaning method, whether butterworthing, recirculation, rinsing, steaming, ventilating, or drying;
The cleaning medium, whether sea, fresh, treated or demineralised water, or a chemical or solvent;
Which cleaner, if any, to be used, its concentration and whether it is to be injected, recirculated, locally cleaned or hand wiped;
The washing temperature required to be maintained;
The length of cleaning time required;
Slop disposal requirements;
Wall wash test requirements, if any;
Any relevant additional instructions, including protective equipment requirements; and
The action to be taken in the event of an emergency.

8.32C Are officers aware of the dangers associated with tank cleaning operations after the carriage of volatile or toxic products?

Note: Special attention shall be given regarding tank entry permits after tank cleaning of toxic cargoes.

8.33C Have satisfactory column/cofferdam purging routines been established where deep well pumps are fitted?

8.34C Where cargo tanks are of stainless steel are there procedures for passivation and pickling?

Notes: Passivation and pickling are acid treatments applied to the surface of stainless steel tanks to aid the formation of a continuous passive chromium oxide film. The surfaces of stainless steel tanks should be regularly checked, generally using a palladium chloride test, for an intact passive film.
Passivation is removal of contaminants from the surface of stainless steel. The most common treatment is nitric acid solution, although care should be exercised in selecting the treatment to ensure that the contaminant is adequately targeted.
Pickling is the removal of scale and oxide layers on the surface of the tank, generally the result of heating the metal through welding or other heat treatments, by the application of nitric or hydrofluoric acid, although other specialised applications exist. The application restores the chromium oxide film.
It is essential that the passivation or pickling acid is thoroughly removed after the process is completed. Residual hydrofluoric acid will initiate pitting corrosion.

8.35C Are adequate procedures in place for carrying out wall wash tests?

Notes: Wall wash tests are carried out on the bulkheads of cargo tanks. There are many types including chloride, colour, chemical oxygen demand, methanol, non-volatile matter, permanganate time and water miscibility tests. Procedures should include the use of protective equipment where required.

8.36C Is the cargo sample locker situated within the main cargo area and is it in good order?

Samples which have to be kept on board shall be stowed in a designated space situated in the cargo area, or, exceptionally, elsewhere, subject to the approval of the Administration. (IBC 16.5.1)
Note: If the locker contains flammable liquids, the SOLAS fire extinguishing arrangements are required.

8.37C Is the cargo sample locker suitably constructed to prevent breakages?

The stowage space shall be:
Cell divided in order to avoid shifting of the bottles at sea;
Made of material fully resistant to the different liquids intended to be stowed; and
Equipped with adequate ventilation arrangements. (IBC 16.5.2)
Samples which react with each other dangerously shall not be stowed close to each other. (IBC 16.5.3)
Samples shall not be retained on board longer than necessary. (IBC 16.5.4)

8.38C Is the cargo sample locker adequately ventilated?

Note: Mechanical ventilation is not required.

Cargo Handling and Monitoring Equipment:

8.39C Are the cargo, ballast and stripping pumps, eductors and their associated instrumentation and controls , in good order and is there recorded evidence of regular testing?

8.40C Are the cargo and ballast pump bearing, casing and shaft gland temperature monitoring sensors in good order and is there evidence of regular testing?

Notes: The requirement is to provide an alarm. There is no requirement for temperatures to be displayed or for a high temperature trip to operate . Cargo pump bearings must not have temporary cooling fitted.

8.41C Are the cargo lines, vapour lines and inert gas lines in good order and is there recorded evidence of regular testing?

Note: This includes corrosion of bolts and flanges on dresser couplings.

8.42C Is the cargo pump emergency shutdown system in good order and is there recorded evidence of regular testing?

Note: Pump alarms and trips, level alarms, etc., where fitted, should be tested regularly to ensure that they are functioning correctly, and the results of these tests should be recorded.

8.43C Are the cargo and ballast system valves in good order and is there recorded evidence of regular testing?

8.44C Are the cargo system ullage gauges, vapour locks and UTI tapes in good order and is there recorded evidence of regular testing?

8.45C Are the remote and local temperature and pressure sensors and gauges in good order and is there recorded evidence of regular testing?

8.46C Are the cargo tank high level and overflow alarms in good order and is there recorded evidence of regular testing?

Record if high level alarms are not fitted and also if the overfill alarm system is not independent of the main gauging system.
Cargo tanks shall be fitted with a visual and audible high-level alarm which indicates when the liquid level in the cargo tank approaches the normal full condition. (IBC 15.19.6)
The high level alarm system shall be independent of the overflow-control system and shall be independent of the gauging devices (These are listed in IBC 13.1). (IBC 15.19.5)
A tank overflow control system shall:
Come into operation when the normal tank loading procedures fail to stop the liquid level exceeding the normal full condition;
Give a visual and audible tank-overflow alarm to the ship’s operator; and
Provide an agreed signal for sequential shutdown of onshore pumps or valves or both and of the ship’s valves. The signal, as well as the pump and valve shutdown, may be dependent on operator’s intervention. The use of shipboard automatic closing valves shall be permitted only when specific approval has been obtained from the Administration and the port State authority concerned.
(IBC 15.19.7)
Note: High level alarms should be in operation during both loading and discharging operations.

8.47C Are pipeline drains and stub pieces valved and capped and in good order?

8.48C Are cargo line drains suitably positioned to preclude liquid remaining in the line after draining?

8.49C Are cargo pipelines tested annually?

Note: Cargo pipelines should be tested to 1.5 times their rated working pressure at least annually and be marked with the date of test and the pressure.

8.50C Is the cargo tank high-level alarm system independent of both the gauging devices and the overflow-control alarm system?

Cargo tanks shall be fitted with a visual and audible high-level alarm which indicates when the liquid level in the cargo tank approaches the normal full condition. (IBC 15.19.6)
The high level alarm system shall be independent of the overflow-control system and shall be independent of the gauging devices (These are listed in IBC 13.1). (IBC 15.19.5)
A tank overflow control system shall:
Come into operation when the normal tank loading procedures fail to stop the liquid level exceeding the normal full condition;
Give a visual and audible tank-overflow alarm to the ship’s operator; and
Provide an agreed signal for sequential shutdown of onshore pumps or valves or both and of the ship’s valves. The signal, as well as the pump and valve shutdown, may be dependent on operator’s intervention. The use of shipboard automatic closing valves shall be permitted only when specific approval has been obtained from the Administration and the port State authority concerned.
(IBC 15.19.7)
Note: High level alarms are required where 15.19.6 is indicated in column ‘o’ of Chapter 17 and overflow alarms where 15.19.7 is indicated.

8.51C Are there records of the calibration of key cargo instrumentation, including temperature and pressure gauges?

Notes: There should be records of the regular checking and calibration of instrumentation, particularly cargo tank temperature and pressure gauges. Calibration should be carried out preferably at intervals not exceeding 30 months.
Calibration of instrumentation is often difficult whilst the vessel is in service and it is usually carried out during repair periods. However, comparisons between local and remote thermometer readings provide a practical cross-reference.

8.52C Is the inert gas system and/or storage and associated pipework, where fitted, in good order?

8.53C Is the general condition of the cargo tank heating system satisfactory?

Ullaging, Sampling and Closed Operations:

8.54C Are vapour locks, where fitted, calibrated and certified by a recognised cargo inspection
organisation?
Notes: Corrections for datum levels and for list and trim should be checked and approved by the organisation certifying the system if ullages from retrofitted vapour locks are used for cargo calculation. Where vapour locks have been retro-fitted, certificates of calibration must be provided by a recognised Classification society or cargo inspection company.
All vessels should have a special purpose cap to fit onto vapour locks or other measuring apertures in order that the atmosphere within the tank can be determined without gas escaping.

8.55C If fixed tank gauges are not fitted, are sufficient portable tapes provided to simultaneously gauge each tank being worked?

If a fixed cargo tank gauging system is fitted but is unreliable and portable tapes/vapour locks are being used as the main method of ullaging, this fact should be recorded as an Observation. The number of tapes in use must be recorded.
Notes: Portable tapes should be calibrated in accordance with manufacturer’s recommendations and valid certificates of calibration should be provided for each instrument.
UTI tapes constitute ‘restricted’ gauging and must not be used with cargoes that require ‘closed’ operations as required by IBC chapter 17 column ‘j’.
There should also be two spare tapes on board.
There is no requirement for the shore calibration of UTI tapes. Temperature sensors should be checked against a reference thermometer every 12 months according to the manufacturer’s instructions.
There is no requirement for the shore calibration of interface tapes. According to IMO MEPC.5(XIII) – 3.6 the detectors should be calibrated on board in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.

8.56C Is the vessel capable of operating in a closed condition if volatile or toxic products are handled, including ullaging and sampling?

Open and restricted gauging shall be allowed only where:
Open venting is allowed by the Code; or
Means are provided for relieving tank pressure before the gauge is operated. (IBC 13.1.3)
All tankers fitted with a fixed inert gas system shall be provided with a closed ullage system.
(SOLAS 1974 II-2/60.7 and SOLAS 2004 II-2/4.5.5.3.3))
Notes: On a chemical tanker, ‘closed’ loading is required at all times when so specified in IBC chapter 17 column ‘j’. In such cases, use of portable UTI tapes is only permitted when these tapes are certified to be used in cases of complete gas-tight conditions. Use of gauges that are certificated for use in restricted operations is not permitted.
A volatile product is petroleum having a flash point below 600C as determined by the closed cup method of testing.
If a cargo is being handled at a temperature within 100C of its flashpoint, it should be considered volatile. Therefore a cargo with a flashpoint of 800C should be considered volatile if handled at a temperature of 700C or above.

.57C If the vessel is handling volatile or toxic cargoes, is it operating in a closed condition at the time of the inspection?

8.58C Do tank hatches, tank cleaning apertures and sighting ports appear to be liquid and gas tight?

Venting Arrangements:

The requirements for inert gas systems for chemical carriers are contained in SOLAS II-2/4.5.5.2. Chapter 15 of the FSS Code (page 41) gives further details on the equipment standards. SOLAS II-2/4.5.5.2 also refers to IMO Resolution A.567(14) – Regulations for Inert Gas Systems on Chemical Tankers, which can be found in the IMO publication Inert Gas Systems.

8.59C Is the cargo venting system in good order?

Note: The condition of p/v valves, mast risers, vent stacks, vapour lines, vacuum valves and flame screens should be assessed.

8.60C Is the cargo venting system being operated correctly?

8.61C Are SOLAS secondary venting requirements being complied with?

Notes: Class societies may accept a system that may not comply with the SOLAS requirements for ‘Secondary means of full flow relief’.
In such cases the question should be answered ‘No’. A full description of the system as fitted should be made as an Observation to allow an assessment of acceptability to be made.
Controlled tank venting systems shall consist of a primary and a secondary means of allowing full flow relief of vapour to prevent over-pressure or under-pressure in the event of failure of one means. Alternatively, the secondary means may consist of pressure sensors fitted in each tank with a monitoring system in the ship’s cargo control room or position from which cargo operations are normally carried out. Such monitoring equipment shall also provide an alarm facility which is activated by detection of over-pressure or under-pressure conditions within a tank. (IBC 8.3.3)
Vessels equipped with vapour collection systems must be fitted with a pressure sensing device that senses the pressure in the main vapour collection line, which:
Has a pressure indicator located on the vessel where the cargo transfer is controlled; and
Has a high pressure and a low pressure alarm that:
Is audible and visible on the vessel where cargo transfer is controlled;
Alarms at a high pressure of not more than 90 percent of the lowest pressure relief valve setting in the cargo tank venting system; and
Alarms at a low pressure of not less than four inches water gauge (0.144 psig) for an inerted tankship, or the lowest vacuum relief valve setting in the cargo tank venting system for a non-inerted tankship. (CFR 46 39.20-13)
Notes: In the case of inerted vessels, if pressure sensors are provided as the means of secondary protection, the alarm settings for the pressure sensors must be set to actuate when the tank pressure reaches 10% greater than the normal actuation settings of the pressure valves themselves. In the case of the low-pressure settings, the pressure in a tank should never be permitted to fall below zero and the pressure sensors should be set to alarm above zero.
In the case of non-inerted vessels if pressure sensors are provided, the over-pressure setting should be set to alarm at 10% greater than the normal actuation settings of the pressure valves, and at a vacuum 10% greater than the normal actuation settings of the vacuum valves.
In all cases, a description of the secondary venting arrangements should be provided, in particular what vents or pressure/vacuum sensing systems are available on each tank when the main inlet valve to IG/vent main is shut. Where electronic pressure/vacuum sensors are provided, identify and record whether the alarms are set to operate at the correct value or some other value.
In actual practice the setting of the alarm might need to be more than 110% of the setting of the pressure and vacuum release valves, in order to avoid continuous sounding of the alarm. Class societies do not appear to have a consensus about the setting of pressure alarms - some state 110%, some 125%, some more. Although a setting of 125% will be well within the capability of the tank structure to withstand such a pressure (125% of a vacuum setting of -350 mb is merely 90 mb, or about 0.1 bars) the setting should be as close to 110% as possible, and should be determined through operational practice.
Where p/v breakers are fitted, they are usually set to operate at about 1800 and -700 mmwg, (180 and – 70 mbars).

8.62C Are the p/v valves in good order, inspected and cleaned as part of a regular planned maintenance routine and are there records to support this?

Notes: High jet cones and flaps should not be jacked open, particularly when loading.
Verify that p/v valves, where fitted, are tight and in good order.
High jet vents are not fitted with flame screens and their correct operation relies on a pressure build-up within the compartment which opens the valve at a predetermined level and results in a gas exit velocity of a minimum of 30 metres/sec. This results in protection against the passage of flame, the speed of which is about 7.5 metres/sec.
Consistent with safety and without interfering with operations and if appropriate to the design of the venting equipment, request the manual lifting of p/v valves to demonstrate satisfactory operation. P/v valves should be checked for free movement prior to the commencement of each cargo operation as required by the Ship to Shore Safety Check List question 31.

8.63C Are flame screens easily accessible and removable, in good order and inspected and cleaned as part of a regular maintenance routine and are there records available?

Note: The vacuum valve of a p/v valve will be fitted with a flame screen.

8.64C If the vessel is operating with a vapour return line connected, are appropriate transfer procedures in place?

Vessels equipped with vapour collection systems must be fitted with a pressure sensing device that senses the pressure in the main vapour collection line, which:
Has a pressure indicator located on the vessel where the cargo transfer is controlled; and
Has a high pressure and a low pressure alarm that:
Is audible and visible on the vessel where cargo transfer is controlled;
Alarms at a high pressure of not more than 90 percent of the lowest pressure relief valve setting in the cargo tank venting system; and
Alarms at a low pressure of not less than four inches water gauge (0.144 psig) for an inerted tankship, or the lowest vacuum relief valve setting in the cargo tank venting system for anon-inerted tankship. (CFR 46 39.20-13)
Note: Particular attention should be paid to monitoring the pressure in the cargo tanks and the associated line system. P/v valves, the ullaging system, and the level alarms should have been thoroughly tested prior to the transfer commencing and there should be awareness of the initial transfer rate and maximum allowable transfer rates.

Static Electricity Precautions:

Notes: ISGOTT Chapter 3 addresses the hazards associated with static electricity. ISGOTT Chapter 11 addresses the precautions that must be taken when handling static accumulator cargoes in more detail. Provided that a tank is maintained in an inert condition, when static non-accumulator cargoes are being handled, or when it can be guaranteed that the tank atmosphere is non-flammable, no anti-static precautions are necessary.
Questions 8.65 to 8.73 should only be completed for vessels carrying static accumulator cargoes in non-inert tanks. If the cargo is not a static accumulator or if the tanks are inerted, answer these questions ‘NA’.
Static accumulator petroleum cargoes are all those except crude oils, residual fuel oils, black diesel oils and asphalts (bitumens). Some chemicals are known static accumulators and examples are Cumene, Cyclohexane, Diethylether, Heptanes, MTBE, Nonene, Octenes, Styrene, Toluene and Xylene. In case of doubt it should be assumed that a product is a static accumulator and the appropriate precautions should be taken.

8.65C Are precautions relating to maximum flow rates during initial loading being observed?

The generally accepted method for controlling electrostatic generation in the initial stages of loading is to restrict the velocity of oil entering the tank to 1 metre/second until the tank inlet is well covered and all splashing and surface turbulence in the tank has ceased. The 1 metre/second limit applies in the branch line to each individual cargo tank and should be determined at the smallest cross-sectional area including valves or other piping restrictions in the last section before the tank's loading inlet. (ISGOTT 11.1.7.3)

8.66C Are required settling periods being observed?

There should be a delay of 30 minutes (settling time) after the completion of loading of each tank before commencing these operations (dipping, ullaging or sampling with metallic equipment). This is to allow the settling of gas bubbles, water or particulate matter in the liquid and the dissipation of any electrical potential
(ISGOTT 11.8.2.3)
Note: If the vessel is fitted with a fixed tank level gauging system, but is not fitted with IG and not fitted with full depth sounding pipes, the Operator’s policy relating to actions to be taken in the event of failure of the primary fixed gauging system must be reviewed.

8.67C Where vapour locks are fitted to cargo tanks that are not fitted with full depth sounding pipes, are static electricity precautions taken to ensure that the appropriate relaxation period elapses prior to ullaging or sampling?

Operations carried out through sounding pipes are permissible at any time because it is not possible for any significant charge to accumulate on the surface of the liquid within a correctly designed and installed sounding pipe. A sounding pipe is defined as a conducting pipe which extends the full depth of the tank and which is effectively bonded and earthed to the tank structure at its extremities. The pipe should be slotted in order to prevent any pressure differential between the inside of the pipe and the tank and to ensure that true level indications are obtained (ISGOTT 11.8.2.3)

8.68C Are metal tapes and other gauging or sampling devices effectively bonded before being introduced into tanks?

Note: UTI tapes must be bonded before being introduced into tanks. UTI tapes which have quick couplings to connect the unit to the vapour lock will possibly not require bonding wires. However, the internal bonding of such units should be checked every six months in accordance with the manufacturer’s requirements.

8.69C If portable tank cleaning hoses are used, are continuity tests carried out and the results recorded?

Bonding wires should be incorporated within all portable tank washing hoses to ensure electrical continuity. Couplings should be connected to the hose in such a way that effective bonding is ensured between them. Hoses should be indelibly marked to allow identification. A record should be kept showing the date and the result of electrical continuity testing. (ISGOTT 11.3.6.2)
All hoses supplied for tank washing machines should be tested for electrical continuity in a dry condition prior to use, and in no case should the resistance exceed 6 ohms per metre length. (ISGOTT 11.3.6.3)

8.70C Are personnel aware of the hazards associated with tank cleaning after the carriage of volatile products?

Note: The tank cleaning recommendations contained in ISGOTT Chapter 11.3 must be strictly observed.

8.71C Are personnel aware of the hazards associated with steaming cargo tanks after the carriage of volatile products?

Steam should never be injected into a tank that may contain a flammable cargo. (TSG D.3.11)

8.72C Are personnel aware of the need to avoid the free fall of liquid into tanks?

Loading or ballasting from the top (overall) delivers charged liquid to a tank in such a manner that it can break up into small droplets and splash into the tank. This may produce a charged mist as well as an increase in the petroleum gas concentration in the tank. Restrictions upon loading or ballasting overall are given in ISGOTT Section 11.1.12. (ISGOTT 3.3.3)

8.73C Are cargo pipe joints bonded?

All gasketed cargo-pipe joints and hose connections shall be electrically bonded. (IBC 10.2)
Note: Some gaskets are electrically conductive and bonding is not required.

Manifold Arrangements:

8.74C Are cargo manifold arrangements satisfactory?

8.75C Are manifold pressure gauges fitted outboard of the manifold valves and are they in good order?

Manifold pressure gauges should be fitted to the spool pieces/reducers on the outboard side of the manifold valves. (ISGOTT 24.6.3)

8.76C Are pressure gauges also fitted to the offshore manifolds and regularly checked during the discharge for manifold valve leakage?

8.77C Are manifold pressure gauges fitted with valves or cocks?

8.78C Are all flange connections fully bolted?

Note: This includes any line which is being used for, or might become pressurised during, cargo operations on both sides of the vessel.

8.79C Are manifold blank flanges of an equivalent rating to that of the manifold pipelines?

Notes: It is generally accepted that steel blanks should be of the same thickness as the flanges to which they are attached, but this will not necessarily result in the pressure capability being the same as that of the associated pipework.
It is the pressure rating of the blank which is important and blanks made of materials such as titanium have a superior strength and may therefore be significantly thinner for the same pressure rating as a mild steel blank. If such a blank is fitted, there must be documentation on board to prove that the pressure rating is adequate for the service.
This also applies to other manifolds such as bunker lines which can become pressurised where, for example, valves have been inadvertently left closed, and cause leakage on the opposite side of the vessel in the same way as for cargo manifolds.

8.80C Are the manifold valves and lines marked to identify the tank or tanks they serve

8.81C Are the manifolds fitted with drain lines and purge points and are they valved and capped?

8.82C Is the vessel free of unauthorised inter-connections between cargo, bunker and ballast systems?

Cargo Pump Room:

This section applies to all pump rooms if fitted, including Cargo Pump Rooms, Ballast Pump Rooms and Fuel Oil Transfer Pump Rooms.

8.83C On vessels with pump rooms, are they free of evidence of significant leaks from machinery, pipework, valve glands and instrumentation?

8.84C Are bulkhead seals gas tight and, if required, well lubricated?

8.85C Is the cargo pump room gas monitoring system in good order and regularly checked?

All tankers shall be fitted, by the date of the first scheduled docking after 1st July 2002 but not later than 1st July 2005, with a system for continuous monitoring of the concentration of hydrocarbon gases. Sampling points or detector heads shall be located in suitable positions in order that potentially dangerous leakages are readily detected. When the hydrocarbon gas concentration reaches a pre-set level, which shall not be higher than 10% of the LEL, a continuous audible and visual alarm signal shall be automatically effected in the in the pump room and cargo control room to alert personnel to the potential hazard.
(SOLAS 2000 II-2/4.5.10.1.3 and 1.6.7)
The alarm shall be automatically affected in the pump room, engine control room, cargo control room and navigation bridge on vessels constructed on or after 1st July 2002. (SOLAS 2000 II-2/4.5.10.1.3)
Note: Existing systems having a pre-set level of not more than 30% LEL may be accepted on vessels constructed before 1st July 2002.

8.86C Is the bilge pump in good order and can it be operated from a position outside the pump room?

The bilge system serving the cargo pump room shall be operable from outside the cargo pump-room.
(IBC 3.3.5)

8.87C Are discharge pressure gauges provided outside where a cargo pump room is fitted and are they in good order?

Safety Equipment:

8.88C Is the vessel provided with the protective equipment required by the IBC or BCH Codes?

For the protection of crew members who are engaged in loading and discharging operations, the ship shall have on board suitable protective equipment consisting of large aprons, special gloves with long sleeves, suitable footwear, coveralls of chemical-resistant material and tight fitting goggles or face shields or both. The protective clothing and equipment shall cover all skin so that no part of the body is unprotected. (IBC 14.1.1)
Work clothes and protective equipment shall be kept in easily accessible places and in special lockers. Such equipment shall not be kept within accommodation spaces, with the exception of new, unused equipment and equipment which has not been used since undergoing a thorough cleaning process. The Administration may, however, approve storage rooms for such equipment within accommodation spaces if adequately segregated from living spaces such as cabins, passageways, dining rooms, bathrooms etc. (IBC 14.1.2)
Protective equipment shall be used in any operation, which may entail danger to personnel. (IBC 14.1.3)

8.89C Is the vessel provided with the safety equipment required by the IBC or BCH Codes?

Ships carrying toxic cargoes for which 15.12, 15.12.1 or 15.12.3 is listed in column ‘o’ in the table of chapter 17 shall have on board sufficient but not less than three complete sets of safety equipment, each permitting personnel to enter a gas-filled compartment and work there for at least 20 minutes. (IBC 14.2.1)
One complete set of safety equipment shall consist of:
One self contained air-breathing apparatus (not using stored oxygen);
Protective clothing, boots, gloves and tight fitting goggles;
Fireproof line with belt resistant to the cargoes carried; and
Explosion-proof lamp. (IBC 14.2.2)
For the safety equipment required in 14.2.1, all ships shall carry either:
One set of fully charged spare air bottles for each breathing apparatus;
A special air compressor suitable for the supply of high-pressure air of the required purity;
A charging manifold capable of dealing with sufficient spare air bottles for the breathing apparatus; or,
Fully charged spare air bottles with a total free air capacity of at least 6,000 l for each breathing apparatus on board in excess of the requirements of SOLAS II-2/10.10. (IBC 14.2.3)
Note: For vessels carrying toxic cargoes, the safety equipment referred to above should provide full protection. The suits themselves shall be capable of providing adequate protection against the product as indicated in the appropriate resistance table that is provided by the manufacturer, and fitted with integral gloves and boots. The responsible officer should be aware of these limitations as they relate to the cargoes being carried. Such suits are not required if the vessel does not carry toxic cargoes.
Full protection chemical suits should be serviced by an agency annually.

8.90C Is the safety equipment correctly located?

At least one set of safety equipment shall be kept in a suitable clearly marked locker in a readily accessible place near the cargo pump room. The other sets of safety equipment shall also be kept in suitable, clearly marked, easily accessible places. (IBC 14.2.5)

8.91C Is the safety equipment required by the IBC or BCH Codes examined by an expert agency annually and are records available?

The equipment shall be inspected and tested by an expert at least once a year. (IBC 14.2.6)
Note: An ‘expert’ may be a member of the crew provided they have attended relevant courses and have documentation available to prove it.

8.92C Is the safety equipment inspected on board monthly and are records available?

The breathing apparatus shall be inspected at least once a month by a responsible officer, and the inspection recorded in the ship’s log-book. (IBC 14.2.6)

8.93C Are emergency escape sets provided for every person on board where required?

Ships carrying cargoes for which ‘Yes’ is indicated in column ‘n’ of Chapter 17 shall be provided with suitable respiratory and eye protection sufficient for every person on board for emergency escape purposes, subject to the following:
Filter type respiratory protection is unacceptable;
Self-contained breathing apparatus shall have at least a duration of service of 15 minutes;
Emergency escape respiratory protection shall not be used for fire-fighting or cargo handling purposes and shall be marked to that effect. (IBC 14.3.1)

8.94C Where filter-type respirators have been provided, is there an adequate system of control in place?

Notes: Use of filter type respirators is discouraged. Where filter-type respirators are carried these are not to be considered as part of the safety equipment required by the Codes. Their use must be strictly supervised, they should be stored under the control of the Chief Officer, and there should be clear labelling for which chemicals the canisters are approved. There should be recognition that the lifetime of canisters is affected by the exposure and records should be maintained of use in order that this is not exceeded.
Filter-type respirators should not be used for chemicals identified as toxic by the Codes, nor should they be used in place of breathing apparatus.

8.95C Are decontamination showers and an eye-wash, where required, provided in suitably marked locations?

Suitably marked decontamination showers and an eyewash should be available on deck in convenient locations. The showers and eyewash shall be operable in all ambient conditions. (IBC 14.3.4)
Note: For use in all ambient conditions, a recirculation system, or fully heat-traced line must be provided.

8.96C Is the type of foam compound suitable for the cargoes which the vessel is certified to carry?

Every ship shall be provided with a fixed deck foam system. (IBC 11.3.1)
Only one type of foam concentrate shall be supplied and it shall be effective for the maximum possible number of cargoes intended to be carried. For other cargoes for which foam is not effective or is incompatible, additional arrangements to the satisfaction of the Administration shall be provided. Regular protein foam shall not be used. (IBC 11.3.2)
Note: Ships constructed before 20th May 1981 may comply with the 1977 edition of the Code and therefore might have a dry powder instead of a foam system fitted.

Cargo Hoses:

8.97C If the vessel uses its own cargo hoses, are they in good order, pressure tested annually to their design working pressure and is a record of all hose tests and inspections maintained on board?

The test pressure should be 1.5 times the working pressure.
The hose shall be stencilled or otherwise marked with the date of testing, its specified maximum and minimum service temperature, as applicable. The specified maximum working pressure shall not be less than 1 MPa (10 bars) gauge. (IBC 5.7.3)
Note: Each hose should also be individually numbered for identification purposes.
IBC Code requirements are that cargo hoses should have a working pressure of at least 1 MPa (10 bars).

Cargo Lifting Equipment:

8.98C Are all cargo derricks, cranes and other lifting equipment properly marked and has periodical testing and inspection been carried out?

Notes: Cargo lifting equipment should be load tested every five years and thoroughly examined by a competent person annually. Other lifting equipment is not regulated except as usually required by class, but should be tested and examined under a similar regime. The minimum SWL for which testing is required is one tonne (1,000 kgs).
A Chain Register is not required, but documentation supporting testing, examination and maintenance that follows the OCIMF Publication Recommendations for the Tagging/Labeling, Testing and Maintenance, Documentation/Certification for Ships' Lifting Equipment should be maintained.

8.99C Are winches associated with lifting equipment in good order?

Note: Cargo derrick topping lifts should have a means of securing them, such as a locking pin or ratchet, to prevent the weight of the derrick being solely taken by the winch brake. Check that this is fitted and that it and any associated winches are in good condition. Documentation supporting testing, examination and maintenance that follows the OCIMF Publication Recommendations for the Tagging/Labeling, Testing and Maintenance, Documentation/Certification for Ships' Lifting Equipment should be maintained.

Chapter 9. Mooring

Notes: The OCIMF publications Effective Mooring, Mooring Equipment Guidelines and Anchoring Systems and Procedures. provide information on all aspects of mooring equipment and operations.
Common causes of accidents are an inadequate understanding of good mooring practices, unattended mooring lines, a mixture of wire and non-wire moorings, unbalanced mooring arrangements, poor quality of mooring lines, poor maintenance of mooring equipment, insufficient knowledge of local conditions, inattention to weather and tidal conditions and passing traffic.
It should be noted that there are differences between editions 2 and 3 of Mooring Equipment Guidelines 2 with respect to the requirements for the SWL of mooring fittings, and that vessels constructed before the 3rd edition was published may not comply with that edition. Mooring Equipment Guidelines is based upon the recommendations of ISO 3913.

Mooring Equipment Documentation:

9.1 Are certificates available for all mooring ropes and wires?

Note: A file showing the locations of the winches should be maintained. Test certificates for mooring lines, Mandel/Tonsberg shackles and synthetic tails should be kept in a file clearly showing to which winch each particular component has been fitted.

9.2 Do all mooring ropes and where fitted, mooring wire tails, meet OCIMF guidelines?

Mooring lines should preferably all be of the same material and construction. Ropes with low elastic elongation properties are recommended for larger tankers as they limit the tanker’s movement at the berth. High modulus synthetic fibre ropes are a viable replacement for winch-stowed steel wire ropes for the mooring of large tankers at terminals, other than single point moorings. Recommendations on their use are contained in the OCIMF publication Mooring Equipment Guidelines. (ISGOTT 23.4.1)
Where dynamic (shock) loading on moorings can be caused by swell conditions or the close passing of ships, fibre tails on the ends of mooring wires and high modulus synthetic fibre mooring ropes can provide sufficient elasticity to prevent failure of the mooring and other components in the mooring system. The tanker or the terminal may provide the tails, whose length should not exceed one third of the distance between the ship’s fairlead and the shore mooring bollard. (ISGOTT 23.4.1)
Any material having moderate to high elasticity is suitable for the manufacture of tails. Common materials include polyester, polyester/polyolefin composites and polyamide. To increase fatigue life and strength, it is recommended that tails are torque matched to the main line. Synthetic tails should have an MBL at least 25% higher than that of the mooring line to which they are attached. Polyamide tails should have a 37% higher MBL than the mooring line to take account of loss of strength when wet. (MEG 6.5.1)
Polyamide is previously referred to as Nylon and it loses 10-15% of its strength when wet. It has the highest elasticity of regularly used materials with good temperature and abrasion resistance. (MEG 6.3.1.2)
The traditional tail length of 11 metres is adequate for sheltered pierside moorings where little or no wave induced vessel motion occur. At exposed pierside moorings where significant ship motions occur, the tail length of 11 metres may be inadequate. This could lead to immediate tensile failure or, in the longer term, lead to the fatigue failure of main winch ropes and/or mooring equipment onboard or ashore. Longer tail lengths may be required for exposed berths where waves up to 2 metres significant wave height and having periods in excess of 10 seconds may be encountered. Increased tail length will typically only be required for breast lines and may not be necessary for spring lines. (MEG 6.5.2)
Tails should be replaced at least every 18 months unless experience and hours in use coupled with inspection indicates a longer or shorter period is warranted. A record of service should be maintained that includes time in use and inspection results. Tails should be replaced prior to their residual strength falling to 60% of their original MBL. (MEG 6.5.3)
Notes: The 18 month period mentioned above is based upon the actual time in use on an average ship in average trade. The important factor is that an inspection/assessment programme is in place (with records). Inspectors should ascertain if any formal training in rope assessment has been undertaken.
The use of primarily polyester blends as opposed to nylon should be acceptable, based on existing OCIMF guidance on the fibre properties.
Modern polypropylene mixture ropes contain a proportion of synthetic fibres such as polyester and they have superior qualities to the traditional polypropylene rope.
High-modulus synthetic ropes provide an alternative to conventional synthetic ropes and wires. There are two types of high-modulus rope - Aramid and HMPE (high-modulus polyethylene). Mooring Equipment Guidelines compares the characteristics of wires and various synthetic ropes against high modulus ropes.

9.3 If one or more bow stoppers are fitted is a certificate attesting to the safe working load provided?

The ship should hold a copy of the manufacturer’s type-approval certificate for the bow chain stopper(s) confirming that the bow chain stopper(s) are constructed in strict compliance with a recognised standard that specifies SWL, yield strength and safety factors.
The ships should also hold a certificate attesting to the strength of the bow chain stopper(s) foundations and associated ship supporting structure substantiated by detailed engineering analysis or calculation.
Bow chain stoppers, associated foundation and supporting structure should be subject to periodic survey, at least once every 5 years, and maintained in good order. Bow chain stoppers should be permanently marked with their SWL and appropriate serial number so that certificates can be easily cross referenced.

9.4 Are there records of the inspection and maintenance of mooring ropes, wires and equipment?

All mooring ropes, wires and tails should be received with either individual certificates or, if part of a batch a certificate of conformity.
It is recommended that on receipt, all ropes, wires and tails be permanently marked so that positive identification with their corresponding certificate can be made. Records should be kept of date placed in use, inspections, and any maintenance. (MEG 6.1.4)

9.5 Is there a policy in place for the testing of winch brakes and are the results recorded?

The primary brake should be set to hold 60% of the mooring line’s minimum breaking load. Since brakes may deteriorate in service, it is recommended that new equipment be designed to hold 80% of the line’s minimum breaking load, but have the capability to be adjusted down to 60%. (MEG 7.4.6)
Regardless of the brake type, periodic testing is essential to ensure safe mooring. (MEG 7.4.5)
The main purpose of brake testing is to verify that the brake will render at a load less than the design rope’s MBL. New ships are normally supplied with a brake test kit of the simplified type. Each winch manufacturer will have their own test equipment and procedures which should be followed by the operator. (MEG 7.4.5.1)
Each winch should be tested individually and the tests should be carried out prior to the ship’s delivery and then every year thereafter following recommendations in ISGOTT. In addition, individual winches should be tested after completion of any modification or repair involving the winch brakes, or upon any evidence of premature brake slippage or related malfunctions. Brakes should be tested to prove they render at a load that is equivalent to 60% of the line’s MBL. (MEG 7.4.5.2)
It is recommended that a complete set of test equipment is placed on board each ship properly stowed in an appropriate location. Alternatively the owner may elect to procure one or two sets of testing equipment for each type and size of winch and retain this equipment in a convenient central location for shipment to repair facilities. (MEG 7.4.5.5)
Ideally, a brake should hold and render within a very small range and once it renders, should shed only enough load to bring the line tension back to a safe level. Unfortunately, the widely used band brake with screw is only marginally satisfactory in fulfilling these requirements and its operation requires special care.
(MEG 7.4)
Specifications should be available on the winch drum to show the design holding capacity and the torque required on the hand wheel or lever to achieve this. (MEG 1.8)
Note: If mooring lines are utilised that have a minimum breaking load in excess of that for which the winch was originally designed, the brakes should be set to render at 60% of the minimum breaking load of the mooring line for which the winch was designed. A further consideration in such cases is that if the over-strength line is of a greater diameter than the mooring line for which the winch was designed, full stowage on the drum must be made and in the case of split-drum winches, must not result in excess layers on the tension part of the drum when in use.
For vessels with single drum winches, any determination of brake holding capacity should take into account the fact that there will generally be more than one layer of rope on the drum when the vessel is moored. It is not required to make a calculation for each number of turns, but an ‘average’ should be taken based on experience of the particular vessel and the brake holding capacity determined using that.
IACS recommend that mooring winches should not be loaded to more than 80% of the SWL. SWL of mooring equipment is normally calculated and not physically tested. It is suggested therefore that mooring winches with a SWL, for example, of 100 tons, should be fitted with a mooring wire of MBL 80 tons, and the rendering point set to between 60% and 80% of the 80 ton MBL of the wire (between 48 and 64 tons).

Mooring Procedures:

9.6 Are moorings satisfactorily deployed and tended?

Generally mooring lines of the same size and type (material) should be used for all leads. Mooring lines should be arranged so that all lines in the same service are about the same length between the ship and the shore bollard. (MEG 1.5)
Note: The mooring arrangement in use for the port and its effectiveness should be reviewed. Breastlines provide the bulk of transverse restraint, backsprings the longitudinal. Headlines and sternlines contribute much less to the mooring strength than is commonly supposed.

9.7 Are mooring lines secured to bitts and turned up correctly?

The recommended method of turning up a rope on bitts is to take one or two full turns around the leading post before figure of eighting. The reason for this is to reduce the tendency to pull the two posts together. However when turning up unjacketed high modulus lines around bitts, for example when a tug’s line fast, two turns should be taken around the leading post prior to turning the line up in a figure of eight fashion. (MEG 8.2)
Note: Mooring lines must not be secured to winch warping drums.

9.8 Are all powered mooring lines correctly reeled on drums?

A band brake is designed to work in one direction only, so the line must always be reeled correctly onto the drum. Each arrangement should be assessed on a case-by-case basis with reference to the manufacturer’s guidance. With lines correctly reeled, tension on the line should be in a direction that causes the free end of the band to be forced towards the fixed end, thereby forcing the two halves of the band together.

9.9 Are all powered mooring lines secured on brakes and are the winches out of gear?

Winches should never be left in gear with the mooring winch band brake on. Hydraulic or electric drives can suffer severe damage should the brake render. Mooring drums should always be left disconnected from the winch drive whenever the mooring line is tensioned and the band brake is fully applied. (MEG 7.4.2.3)

9.10 On split drum winches are all the lines made fast with no more than one layer on each tension side of the drum?

The rated holding capacity is only achieved with one layer of line on the tension section of the drum. Operation with additional layers will decrease the brake holding capacity. (MEG 7.4.1)

9.11 If mooring tails are fitted to wires, do they have proper connecting links and are they correctly fitted?

Tails should be connected to a wire mooring line using appropriate shackles, for example, those manufactured by Mandal, Tonsberg and Boss. The SWL of the joining shackle should be equal to or greater than, the SWL of the mooring line to which it is attached. It is critical that the connecting links are rigged in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. The eye of the tails should be protected with a suitable sheath, the use of leather sheathing is not recommended. If the manufacturer recommends that it is appropriate, a synthetic tail can be attached to a high modulus rope by using a cow hitch. The hitch provides a suitable method of joining ropes without the use of thimbles or other hardware. The cow hitch will reduce the strength of the arrangement by approximately 15%. The use of cow hitches is not recommended for connecting mooring pendants to Aramid lines on account of compression damage. (MEG 6.5.4)
Notes: Tonsberg have a straight pin and the tail should be connected to it; Mandal has a curved roller and the wire should be connected to it; Boss links can be connected in either direction. In all cases, it is critical that the connecting links are rigged in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.

9.12 Are all mooring lines stowed neatly to minimise tripping hazards and are mooring areas clear and unobstructed?

Mooring Equipment:

9.13 Are mooring winches in good order?

9.14 Do mooring winch foundations appear to be in good order?

9.15 Do brake linings, drums and pins appear to be in good order?

Notes: Defective brake gear is often evident, particularly on older vessels. Check the condition of cheek plates for wastage and distortion, the hinge pins and their retaining devices and the condition of the brake drum below the lining.
If there is significant wear on the brake linings, the brake adjustment screw may be at the limit of its travel and further tightening not possible.

9.16 If mooring winches in a gas hazardous area are electrically powered, are motors Ex ‘d’ rated?

Notes: Most mooring winches will be outside gas hazardous areas and therefore will not require an ‘Ex’ rating. If not, there must be evidence available, either by a manufacturer’s plate on the motor, or by documentation, that the motor is rated for use in a gas-hazardous area. An Ex ‘d’ rating means that the equipment can withstand an internal explosion without igniting the outside atmosphere. Ex ‘e’ is an increased safety rating.
Glands at the point of entry of electric cables into junction boxes should be checked.

9.17 If mooring winches are electrically powered, are insulation tests carried out and the results recorded?

Note: Records should be available of the testing of the insulation resistance, from the phases to earth, of motors. The resistance should be above 1 Megohm. Falling insulation resistance indicates deterioration.

9.18 Are mooring wires, ropes and synthetic tails in good order?

Notes: Splicing of ropes is acceptable, but reduces the strength of the rope by about 10%. Splices in eyes and for repairs should have a minimum of 5 tucks.
Particular attention should be paid to the eyes of mooring wires. If there are more than three broken wires in any strand, or five in any adjacent strands in a length of wire 10 times the diameter, the damaged part requires removal and the wire re-splicing.
There should be a routine for the maintenance of wires and the lubrication of them using a preservative which will effectively penetrate the strands and wires.

9.19 Are pedestal fairleads, roller fairleads and other rollers well greased and free to turn and are bitts and chocks free of grooving?

9.20 Is mooring equipment marked with its SWL?

Each fitting should be clearly marked by bead weld outline with its SWL, in addition to any markings required by other applicable standards. The SWL should be expressed in tonnes (letter ‘t’) and be located so that it is not obscured during the operation of the fitting. For safety, the marked SWL should correspond to the load in the associated line or chain. Therefore, the marked SWL will normally be the mooring lines MBL. It will not be the resultant load on the fitting which may be higher. (MEG 4.6)

Anchoring Equipment:

9.21 Are windlasses, anchors, locking bars and cables in good order and operating effectively?

Note: The condition of the locking bars should be checked to ascertain that they function correctly by locking the chain when the vessel is at anchor to prevent the brake having to take the full load of the cable.
At sea the anchors are stowed hard up inside the hawse pipe. They should be secured in place by means of wires which provide more flexibility than chains when the bow is panting in bad weather. These securing arrangements must be tight and must prevent the anchors moving. The chain stopper guillotine should be placed across the cable and should be secured closed by a pin, although it is often the case that this cannot be achieved either because of the design of the stopper or because the cable has a quarter twist in it.
The windlass clutch must then be disengaged, and the brake should be tight. Spurling pipe covers are positioned to prevent water ingress into the chain lockers. Whilst at sea frequent inspections should be made to ensure the securing arrangements remain tight, especially if adverse weather is expected.
After anchoring and the vessel has been brought up, the chain stopper guillotine should be placed across the cable and secured closed by a pin. The cable stopper is specifically constructed to take the weight of a vessel at anchor, whereas the windlass is not. The windlass is only designed to take the weight of heaving an anchor and cable and slacking the cable takes the weight off the windlass bearings and shaft, particularly if the vessel is heaving or pitching or is subject to ranging in strong tides.
The windlass brake should be tightened and then the clutch disengaged. No other securing arrangements should be used whilst at anchor, nor should the spurling pipe covers be replaced.

9.22 Except whilst alongside, when locking bars should be in place, were the anchors cleared and ready for immediate use during port entry?

Whilst moored alongside, anchors not in use should be properly secured by brake and guillotine, but otherwise be available for immediate use. Where specifically otherwise required by the terminal the response should be ‘NA’, (ISGOTT 23.4.2.5)

9.23 Are bitter end securing arrangements unobstructed and outside the chain locker?

9.24 Are the chain locker doors securely battened down?

Single Point Moorings:

9.25 Is single point mooring (SPM) and associated equipment fitted to OCIMF recommendations?

Existing ships delivered before 2009 likely to trade to SPM’s should be equipped with bow chain stoppers designed to accept 76 mm chafe chain:
Up to 150,000 tdw: 1 stopper 200 tonnes swl
150 to 350,000 tdw: 2 stoppers 200 tonnes swl
Over 350,000 tdw: 2 stoppers 250 tonnes swl
New ships delivered during or after 2009 likely to visit SPMs should be equipped with bow chain stoppers designed to accept 76mm chafe chain in accordance with the following table. Owners of ships under construction before 2009 are encouraged to consider fitting bow chain stoppers in accordance with the recommendations for new ships:
Up to 100,000 tdw: 1 stopper 200 tonnes swl
100 to 150,000 tdw: 1 stoppers 250 tonnes swl
Over 150,000 tdw: 2 stoppers 350 tonnes swl
Bow chain stoppers should be located between 2.7 and 3.7 metres inboard from the bow fairlead (regardless of the size of vessel) and due consideration should be given to the correct alignment of stoppers relative to the lead between bow fairlead, stopper, pedestal fairlead and winch drum or the warping drum of the winch.
A bow fairlead should measure at least 600 by 450 mm and be placed on the centre line. If two fairleads are recommended these should be spaced 2 metres centre to centre apart, but in no case more than 3 metres.

9.26 If the vessel is equipped for mooring at single point moorings, does it meet the recommendations as applicable, contained in Mooring Equipment Guidelines (3rd Edition)?

Existing ships delivered before 2009:
Existing ships delivered before 2009, likely to visit SPMs, should be equipped to safely handle pick-up ropes taking into consideration safety and protection from risk of whiplash injury to mooring personnel. It is recognised that existing ship mooring arrangements will normally require the use of pedestal rollers to achieve the desired lead through the bow fairlead and bow chain stopper to the winch storage drum. It is essential that pedestal rollers(s) are correctly positioned, relative to the winch storage drum and the centre of the bow chain stopper, to enable a direct lead from the centre of the bow fairlead to the centre of the bow chain stopper while allowing the pick-up rope to be stowed evenly on the storage drum. There should be at least 3.0 metres distance between the bow chain stopper and the closest pedestal roller to allow for the pick-up rope eye, connecting shackle, shipboard-end oblong plate and a number of chafe chain links.
Owners of existing ships and ships under construction before 2009 are encouraged to consider the practicality of adopting the recommendations for new ships.
New ships delivered during or after 2009:
New ships delivered during or after 2009 likely to visit SPM’s. Wherever possible, it is recommended that winch storage drums used to recover the pick-up ropes are positioned in a direct straight lead with the bow fairlead and bow chain stopper and without the use of pedestal rollers. This relative positioning of the tanker SPM mooring equipment in a direct straight lead is considered the safest and most efficient arrangement for handling the pick-up ropes. However, recognising that not all new mooring arrangement designs will permit direct straight leads to a winch storage drum, consideration of safety and protection from risk of whiplash injury to mooring personnel should take priority in determining the number and positioning of pedestal rollers. In addition to the pedestal roller arrangement recommendations for existing ships, the number of pedestal rollers used for each bow chain stopper should not exceed two and the angle of change of direction of the pick-up rope lead should be minimal.
Remote operated winch storage drums may afford some additional whiplash injury protection for the winch operator.
Winch storage drum used to stow the pick-up rope for existing and new ships should be capable of lifting at least 15 tonnes and be of sufficient size to accommodate 150 metres of 80 mm diameter rope. Use of winch drum ends (warping ends) to handle pick-up ropes is considered unsafe and should be avoided.

9.27 If the vessel is fitted with a hydraulically operated bow stopper, are safeguards provided to prevent its accidental release?

Emergency Towing Arrangements:
Please note that this checklist is a hypothetical example and provides basic information only. It is not intended to take the place of, among other things, workplace, health and safety advice; medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment; or other applicable laws. You should also seek your own professional advice to determine if the use of such checklist is permissible in your workplace or jurisdiction.