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Specifications of Portable Ladders (Section 1)

  • Do ladders have a minimum duty rating of type IA, industrial, extra heavy duty?

  • Are newly purchased ladders made of fiberglass?

  • Is the use of metal ladders prohibited in locations where they may come in contact with electrical conductors?<br><br>Explanation:<br>Special work requiring metal ladders in the 500-kV yards must be approved by supervision prior to beginning work.

  • Are portable ladders equipped with approved safety feet?

  • Are portable ladders only used by one person?<br><br>Explanation:<br>Portable ladders are designed as one-man working ladders including any material supported by the ladders. An exception is double front self-supporting ladders which are designed to be used by two workers, one per side.

Basic Rules for Using Ladders (Section 2)

  • Are ladders used properly? <br><br>Explanation:<br>Proper use:<br>Stepladder full open and its spreader locked;<br>Never climb higher than the second step below the top step;<br>Never “walk” a stepladder while standing on it;<br>Do not overload a ladder.

  • Are ladders positioned close enough to the work that employees do not have to reach more than an arm length from the ladder?

  • Are ladders set up on a stable base?

  • Are platform ladders extended fully and locked prior to use?

  • Are ladders checked proper to use?<br>Hardware;<br>Nuts;<br>Bolts;<br>Spreaders; and,<br>Locks for tightness and good repair.

  • Are shoes free of mud and oil?<br><br>Explanation:<br>When climbing ladders shoes should have heels to prevent slipping.

  • When setting up a straight or extension ladder is the proper angle used?<br><br>Explanation:<br>The proper angle is to place the base a distance from the vertical wall equal to one-fourth the working length of the ladder

  • Are ladders placed so to prevent slipping or tied off to be held in position?<br><br>Explanation:<br>Ladders are not to be used in the horizontal position as platforms, runways, or scaffolds.

  • Is the top of the ladder placed with two rails supported?<br><br>Explanation:<br>Exception: When equipped with a single support attachment.

  • Does the climber face the ladder when ascending and descending?

  • When placed in front of doors is the door blocked, locked or guarded?

  • Are ladders prohibited from being placed on boxes, barrels, or other unstable bases?<br><br>Explanation:<br>Ladders are not to be placed on boxes, barrels, or other unstable bases to obtain additional height.

  • Are ladders with broken or missing steps, rungs, or cleats, broken side rails, or other faulty equipment taken out of service?<br><br>Explanation:<br>Ladders with broken or missing steps, rungs, or cleats, broken side rails, or other faulty equipment shall not be used; improvised repairs shall not be made.

  • Are short ladders spliced together to provide longer sections?<br><br>Explanation:<br>Short ladders are not to be spliced together to provide longer sections.

  • Are ladders used to gain access to the roof?<br><br>Explanation:<br>No ladder should be used to gain access to a roof unless the top of the ladder extends at least 3 feet above the point of support, at eave, gutter, or roofline.

  • Is the middle and top sections of sectional ladders used for bottom sections?<br><br>Explanation:<br>Middle and top sections of sectional ladders should not be used for bottom section unless the user equips them with safety shoes.

Care & Maintenance of Ladders (Section 3)

  • Are ladders maintained in good condition?

  • Is the following conducted when a ladder tips over:<br>Inspect side rails for dents or bends;<br>Inspect rungs for dents;<br>Inspect run-to-side rail connections;<br>Inspect hardware connections;<br>Inspect rivets for shear.

  • Are ladders found to be defective marked and taken out of service until repaired?

  • Are metal bearings of locks, wheels, pulleys, etc. frequently lubricated?

  • Are safety feet, ropes, and other auxiliary equipment kept in good condition?<br><br>Established:<br>Frayed or badly worn rope is to be replaced.<br>Equipment kept in good condition ensures proper performance.

Inspection of Ladders (Section 4)

  • Are ladders inspected immediately after purchase?<br><br>Explanation:<br>Ladders must be inspected immediately after purchase to ensure that a label identifying the manufacturer, ANSI standard, and the type IA designation is attached, and that the ladders were not damaged in shipping.<br>Use Appendix A, Ladder Inspection Checklist. <br>Some critical deficiencies concerning inspecting and correcting ladders include: <br>Loose, worn or damaged anchorages. <br>Loose, worn or damaged rungs or rails. <br>Corrosion damage of components. <br>Projections inside the cage or climbing area. <br>Sharp edges, burrs, and projections on rungs, cleats, steps, and rails.

  • Are portable ladders inspected annually and after the ladder has been dropped? <br><br>Explanation:<br>Portable ladders are to be inspected at least annually and after the ladder has been dropped or otherwise abused. Use the annual color code prescribed in TVA Safety Procedure 617 to identify inspected portable ladders.
Ladders with defects such as weakened or broken treads, rungs, cleats or side rails shall be withdrawn from service and TVA 18004 - Danger Defective Equipment (TAG) Form attached to the ladder.

Storage of Portable Ladders (Section 5)

  • Are ladders stored in the horizontal position and supported at a sufficient number of points?<br><br>Explanation:<br>Support prevents sagging and permanent set.

  • Are ladders stored in a manner to provide ease of access for inspection and does not present hazards to personnel when withdrawing a ladder for use?

  • Are wooden ladders stored at a location where they will not be exposed to the elements and where there is good ventilation?

Specific Requirements of Portable Metal Ladders (Section 6)

  • Is the spacing of the rungs or steps 12-inch center?

  • Are rungs and steps corrugated, knurled, dimpled, coated with skid-resistance material, or otherwise treated to minimize the possibility of slipping?

  • is the minimum width between side rails of a straight ladder or any section of an extension ladder 12 inches?

  • Does the length of single ladders or individual ladders not exceed 30 feet?

  • Does the length of two section ladders not exceed 48 inches?

  • Does the length of over two-section ladders not exceed 60 feet?

  • Based on the nominal length of a ladder does each section of a multi-section ladder overlap the adjacent section?<br><br>Explanation:<br>Ladder length:<br>Up to and including 36 feet: 3 feet overlap;<br>Over 36 feet up to 48 feet: 4 feet overlap;<br>Over 48 feet up to 60 feet: 5 feet overlap

  • Are extension ladders equipped with positive stops?<br><br>Explanation:<br>Positive stops will ensure the overlap specified above.

  • Do stepladders exceed 20 feet in length?<br><br>Explanation:<br>Stepladders are not to exceed 20 feet in length.

  • Are the bottoms of the four rails supplied with insulating non-slip material?

  • Are metal spreaders or locking devices of sufficient size and strength to securely hold the front and back sections in the open position a component of each stepladder?<br><br>Explanation:<br>All sharp points or edges on the spreader are to be covered or removed.

  • Are trestle ladders or extension sections or bases of extension trestle ladders no more than 20 feet in length?

Specific Requirements of Portable Wood Ladders (Section 7)

  • Are wooden ladders coated with a clear preservative material?<br><br>Explanation:<br>Annual coatings (or more frequent) of linseed oil, clear shellac, or varnish prevents deterioration.<br>Pigmented pain must not be used as they conceal defects.

  • Are wooden ladders examined carefully for:<br>Cracks;<br>Rot;<br>Shakes;<br>Splinters;<br>Broken parts or rungs;<br>Loose joints and bolts; and,<br>Hardware in poor condition.

  • Are wooden ladders free from sharp edges and splinters; sound and free from accepted visual inspection from shake, wane, compression failures, decay, or other irregularities?<br><br>Explanation:<br>Low density wood is not to be used.

  • Are stepladders longer than 20 feet used?<br><br>Explanation:<br>Stepladders longer than 20 feet are not approved for use. Only Type I-Industrial stepladder may be used.

  • Are steps parallel and level when the ladder is in position?<br><br>Explanation:<br>Uniform step spacing of no more than 12 inches.

  • Is the minimum width between side rails at the top, inside to inside, no less than 11 1/2 inches? <br><br>Explanation:<br>From top to bottom, the side rails should spread at least one (1) inch apart for each foot of length of stepladder.

  • Are metal spreaders or locking devices of sufficient size and strength to securely hold the front and back sections in the open position a component of each stepladder?<br><br>Explanation:<br>All sharp points or edges on the spreader are to be covered or removed.

  • Are single ladders longer than 30 feet used?<br><br>Explanation:<br>Single ladders longer than 30 feet are not to be used.

  • Are two-section extension ladders longer than 60 feet used? <br><br>Explanation:<br>Two-section extension ladders longer than 60 feet shall not be used. All ladders of this type shall consist of two sections, one to fit within the side rails of the other, and arranged in such a manner that the upper section can be raised and lowered. <br>

Extension Ladders (Wood/Fiberglass/Metal) (Section 8)

  • Are extension ladders equipped with a pulley of no less than 1 1/4 inch in diameter and with a 5/16 inch synthetic or manila rope?<br><br>Explanation:<br>The synthetic or manila rope must be designed for its intended use with a safety factor of four (4) or have a minimum breaking strength of 560 pounds.<br>The rope must be sufficient in length for its intended purpose.<br>Frayed or badly warn ropes must be replaced or the extension ladder taken out of service.

  • Are extension ladders equipped with locks of either the gravity or spring-type capable of sustaining a load of 1,000 pounds?<br><br>Explanation:<br>The locks must be self-releasing and must operate freely and positively.

  • Are two pairs of guide irons properly positioned and securely fastened to the upper portion of the lower ladder section?

  • Are single ladders combined for use with the extension ladders?<br><br>Explanation:<br>Single ladders and extension ladders are not to be combined.

  • Are extension ladders extended when someone is standing on the ladder?<br><br>Explanation:<br>Extension ladder must not be extended when someone is standing on the ladder.

  • Is the locking device examined prior to use of the ladder?<br><br>Explanation:<br>When adjusting the length of an extension ladder examine to ensure the locking device is fully secured.

Training (Section 9)

  • Have employees received the required training prior to use of portable ladders?<br><br>Explanation:<br>ATIS No. 00059136 “Ladder Safety”

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