• Check for Danger.
    I.e. Candidate has verbalised that it is a Safe area before patient is approached

  • Alcohol hand rub + gloves
    Optional as it is an emergency.
    Candidate will NEVER delay response to do a full hand washing with soap and water

  • Approach the patient and say "Hello Sir/Madam" in a Loud voice in both ears

  • Try a Painful Stimulus by squeezing the Trapezius muscle.
    Patient is Unresponsive

  • Calls for Help
    Shouts for Help and pulls the emergency Bell

  • Checks the Airway
    -Pulls the chin down and checks the airway for obstruction
    -If no obstruction, continue with head Tilt Chin Lift Maeuver

  • Checks Breathing and Circulation
    -Uses Look, listen and feel approach for 10 seconds
    (Placing ear just above patients' mouth and nose, looking at the chest for normal risk and fall or any signs of life and not occasional gasps. Counting out 10 seconds)

  • Clear instructions given when Assessor arrives
    "This patient is unresponsive and not breathing. Please call the cardiac arrest team on 2222 and bring the bag valve mask (BVM) immediately."

  • Starts chest compressions at a rate of 30:2
    (Arms are straight, elbows locked, heel of hand on the centre of the chest)
    Sustains rate of 100-120 compressions per minute, allowing the chest to recoil between compressions.
    Gives clear instructions to the assessor to give 2 breaths via BVM and looks at the chest to check ventilation

  • The candidate is able to verbalised all the steps and answer to the questions.
    I.e. What are the Reversible causes of a Cardiac Arrest?
    Able to explain each one of them:
    -Hypoxia
    -Hypovolemia
    -Hypothermia
    -Hypokalemia/Hyperkalemia
    -Hydrogen ion (Acidosis)
    -Toxin

    **SHOCKABLE RYTHMS
    -VF Ventricular Fibrillation
    -PVT Pulseless Ventricular Tachycardia

    **NON-SHOCKABLE RHYTHMS
    -PEA Pulseless Electrical Activity
    -Asystole

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