One first aid injury last week in the Southwest division. A piping foreman was walking along a concrete wall while carrying a load of materials. As he was passing, his right ear lobe grazed a piece of non-protected rebar that was sticking out of the concrete, causing a small laceration to his ear. He was treated at the job site and released to full duty. This is first-aid only injury (non-recordable)
Where did that come from? I didn't expect that! I didn't see that coming! How did that happen? After an injury happens these are typically the questions asked by the injured employee as well as his / her supervisor. In most instances the employee is expressing frustration. He / she thought they were working in a safe manner, because they've done the job that way numerous times.
The most common ingredient in the injury recipe is a lack of awareness. A Pre-task plan is a very effective way to prevent injuries.
WHY IS JOB HAZARD ANALYSIS IMPORTANT?
Many workers are injured or killed at the workplace every day in the United States. Safety and health can add value to your business, your job, and your life. You can help prevent workplace injuries and illnesses by looking at your workplace operations, establishing proper job procedures, and ensuring that all employees are trained properly.
One of the best ways to determine and establish proper work procedures is to conduct a job hazard analysis. A job hazard analysis is one component of the larger commitment of a safety and health management system.
WHAT IS THE VALUE OF A JOB HAZARD ANALYSIS?
Supervisors can use findings of a job hazard analysis to eliminate and prevent hazards in their workplaces. This is likely to result in fewer worker injuries and illnesses; safer, more effective work methods; reduced workers' compensation costs; and increased worker productivity. The analysis also can be a valuable tool for training new employees in the steps required to perform their jobs safely.
HOW DO I IDENTIFY WORKPLACE HAZARDS?
A job hazard analysis is an exercise in detective work. Your goal is to discover the following:
- What can go wrong?
- What are the consequences?
- How could it arise?
- What are the other contributing factors?
- How likely is it a hazard will occur?
To make your job hazard analysis useful, document the answers to these questions in a consistent manner. Describing a hazard in this way helps to ensure that your efforts to eliminate the hazard and implement hazard controls help target the most important contributors to the hazard.
Good hazard scenarios describe:
- Where it is happening (environment)
- Who or what it is happening to (exposure)
- What precipitates the hazard (trigger)
- The outcome that would occur should it happen (consequence), and
- Any other contributing factors
Rarely is a hazard a simple case of one singular cause resulting in one singular effect. More frequently, many contributing factors tend to line up in a certain way to create the hazard. Here is an example of a hazard scenario:
In the metal shop (environment), while clearing a snag (trigger), a workers' hand (exposure) comes into contact
with a rotating pulley. It pulls his hand into the machine and severs his fingers (consequences) quickly.
To perform a job safety analysis you would ask:
-What can go wrong?
The worker's hand could come into contact with a rotating object that catches it and pulls it into the machine.
-What are the consequences?
The worker could receive a severe injury and lose fingers and hands.
-How could it happen?
The accident could happen as a result of the worker trying to clear a snag during operations or as part of a maintenance activity while the pulley is operating. Obviously, this hazard scenario could not occur if the pulley is not rotating.
-What are the other contributing factors?
This hazard occurs very quickly. It does not give the worker much opportunity to recover or prevent it once his hand comes into contact with the pulley. This is an important factor, because it helps you determine the severity and likelihood of an accident when selecting appropriate hazard controls. Unfortunately, experience has shown that training is not very effective in hazard control when triggering events happen quickly because humans can react only so quickly.
-How likely is it that the hazard will occur?
This determination requires some judgment. If there have been "near-misses" or actual cases, then the likelihood of a recurrence would be considered high. If the pulley is exposed and easily accessible, that also is a consideration. In the example, the likelihood that the hazard will occur is high because there is no guard preventing contact, and the operation is performed while the machine is running. By following the steps in this example, you can organize your hazard analysis activities.
The following example shows how a job hazard analysis can be used to identify the existing or potential hazards for each basic step involved in grinding iron casings:
1. Reach into metal box to right of machine, grasp casting, and carry to wheel.
2. Push casting against wheel to grind off burr.
3. Place finished casting in box to left of machine.
Sample Job Hazard Analysis Form.
Opportunities for improvement are ALWAYS welcome! Use the Opportunity for Improvement template on iAuditor to submit.
a. Notices, Posters (5-in1, OSHA Notice, Payroll)
b. Emergency Contacts
c. OSHA 300 Log
a. In use: Safety glasses, Hard hats, Work boots, Gloves
b. Face shields or goggles used for overhead work
c. Respirators available
d. Welding screens
a. Available in gang box and job site trailer
b. Stocked adequately with gloves, bandages, and antiseptics
c. CPR and First Aid trained personnel
d. Medical facility location and contact information communicated
a. Competent person certified
b. Scaffold grade planking
c. Fall protection
d. Clear of debris / trash
a. Free from defects with safety feet, blocked, cleated, or otherwise secured.
b. Straight ladders at 1:4 pitch
a. Capped, stored in an upright position
b. Oxygen / Acetylene properly separated
c. Empty gas cylinders marked
a. Inspected to ensure safe operating condition
b. Hand tools free from defects
c. Unsafe / Unusable tools / equipment tagged "Do Not Use"
d. Tools / Equipment properly guarded
b. Aisles and exit ways clear with 24" clearance
c. Work areas uncluttered and debris removed
a. Electrical equipment grounded
b. Tools double insulated
c. Cords in good condition
d. Electrical panels covered if energized
a. Guard rails, mid rails, toe boards
b. Fall restraint systems
c. Open sides floors or platforms equipped with standard railing
d. Openings (interior / perimeter) properly barricaded or covered
a. Flammable and explosive materials stored safely
b. Adequate number of fire extinguishers available with tags and clips
c. Vehicles and mobile equipment provided with extinguishers
a. Over 4 ft shored, benched, or sloped as required
b. Steps or ladders at 25 ft intervals
c. Competent person on site
a. MSDS and Labels available
b. Employees briefed on HAZCOM
c. HAZCOM information poster posted
d. Employees familiar with MSDS books and their location
Type comments here or use "Sign" function to write:
Ensure a Pre-Task Plan is completed on paper or via the iAuditor app.